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Disease Markers
Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 143-151
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/DMA-130963
Review

Pentraxins as Key Disease Markers for Periodontal Diagnosis

Rahul Kathariya,1 Hansa Jain,1 Dnyneshwari Gujar,1 Archana Singh,1 Himanshu Ajwani,1 and Devendra Mandhyan2

1Department of Periodontics and Oral Implantology, Dr. D.Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital, Pimpri, Pune, India
2Department of Prosthodontics, Chandra Dental College, Safedabad, Lucknow, India

Received 14 January 2013; Accepted 14 January 2013

Copyright © 2013 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Periodontal diseases are characterized by a complex set of biologic interactions between a diverse and dynamic microbial ecosystem and the host’s multifaceted and responsive immune and inflammatory machinery. Such interactions between microbial pathogens and various host response systems play a critical role in the development and progression of periodontal disease via the release of inflammatory and immune mediators. Advances in periodontal disease diagnostic are moving toward methods whereby periodontal risk can be identified and quantified by detecting such inflammatory mediators in its sequential pathophysiology. Pentraxins (PTXs) are classical mediators of inflammation and markers of acute-phase reaction. They are a super family of multifunctional molecules characterized by multimeric structure, divided into “short” PTXs and “long” PTXs. C-reactive protein (CRP) and pentraxin-3 (PTX3) are prototypic molecules of the short and long PTX family, respectively. Evidence suggests that PTXs acts as a non-redundant component of the humoral arm of innate immunity, downstream of, and complementary to, cellular recognition, as well as a tuner of inflammation. CRP is a cheaper biomarker and more readily available in everyday clinical practice compared with other inflammatory markers, on the other hand, PTX3 is believed to be the true independent indicator of disease activity and could have clinical implication in diagnosing the “at site” inflammatory status of the periodontal disease. These pentraxins are sensitive and specific in the diagnosis and prognosis of chronic diseases. Thus the pentraxins could be used as preferred biomarkers in periodontal disease diagnosis.