Table 3: CSF markers of MS disability progression reported in longitudinal studies.

MarkerFindingsReferences

14-3-3 protein14-3-3 positive CIS patients group reached more frequently EDSS ≥ 2.0 at the end of the 32 months follow-up period compared to 14-3-3 negative CIS cases (57% versus 20.5%; )[61]
14-3-3 positive patients had higher EDSS progression rate over 8.5 months following lumbar puncture[62]
TauRR MS patients with higher CSF tau experienced a more rapid one point increase in the EDSS score during a mean followup of 3 years[63]
NFLSignificant correlation between CSF NFL levels
and EDSS progression over 10 years
[64]
Higher multiple sclerosis severity score and higher rate of conversion from RRMS to SPMS at 14 years followup in cases with high CSF NFL levels compared to those with undetectable or intermediate NFL levels[65]
NFHCorrelation with EDSS at 3 years followup in relapsing and progressive MS patients ( ; )[66]
Correlation with EDSS score 6–8 weeks after relapse onset ( ; ) [67]
IgM OBMS patients with positive IgM OB recognizing myelin lipids reached higher disability compared to cases with positive IgM OB not-recognizing myelin lipids over a mean follow-up time of 61 months (mean EDSS score versus ; ) [68]
Positive IgM OB were an independent predictor of the probability of reaching EDSS score 3 or 4 in RR MS patients at 5 and 10 years followup endpoints[69]
Chitinase3-like1High levels were associated with disability progression during followup in CIS patients who converted to MS[70]
Cystatin CCorrelation with EDSS score at last visit (median followup = 6 years) in patients with recurrent myelitis and spinal onset MS (rho = 0.69; )[71]

CIS: clinically isolated syndrome; NFH: neurofilament heavy chain; NFL: neurofilament light chain; OB: oligoclonal bands.