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Disease Markers
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 195453, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/195453
Research Article

Immunophenotype Expressions and Cytokine Profiles of Influenza A H1N1 Virus Infection in Pediatric Patients in 2009

1Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University and Hospital, Tainan 70428, Taiwan
2Center of Infectious Disease and Signaling Research, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70428, Taiwan
3Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University and Hospital, Tainan 70428, Taiwan
4Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70428, Taiwan
5Department of Microbiology & Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70428, Taiwan

Received 30 June 2013; Revised 26 December 2013; Accepted 13 January 2014; Published 18 February 2014

Academic Editor: Maddalena Ruggieri

Copyright © 2014 Shih-Min Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. A novel swine-origin influenza A H1N1 virus (S-OIV) caused human infection and acute respiratory illness in 2009, resulting in an influenza pandemic. Objectives. This study characterized the immune responses of S-OIV infection in pediatric patients at risk of pulmonary complications. Methods. All enrolled pediatric patients were confirmed virologically for S-OIV infection in 2009-2010, prospectively. Changes in cellular immunophenotypes were analyzed using flow cytometry. Plasma cytokine levels associated with S-OIV infection by pulmonary and without pulmonary complications were measured using cytokine cytometric bead assay kits. Results. A total of 85 patients with a mean age of 10.3 years were recruited. The level of C-reactive protein (CRP) was high in patients exhibiting pulmonary complications. The percentage of cellular immunophenotypes did not change between patients with and without pulmonary complications. The absolute numbers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), CD3, CD8, and CD16CD56 decreased with acute S-OIV pulmonary complications. Acute influenza infection with pulmonary complications was associated with high plasma concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and IFN-γ. Conclusion. Immunophenotype studies have reported variability in immune response to the severity of S-OIV infections. Acute phase cytokine profiles of the 2009 S-OIV infection might have contributed to the pathogenesis of the pulmonary complications.