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Disease Markers
Volume 2014, Article ID 218169, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/218169
Review Article

MicroRNAs-Role in Lung Cancer

1Chair and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of Lublin, Ulica Witolda Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
2Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
3Department of Otolaryngology, MSW Hospital, 20-331 Lublin, Poland
4Chair and Department of Gastroenterology with Endoscopic Unit, Medical University of Lublin, 20-093 Lublin, Poland

Received 6 August 2013; Revised 28 January 2014; Accepted 7 February 2014; Published 13 March 2014

Academic Editor: Luisella Bocchio-Chiavetto

Copyright © 2014 Małgorzata Guz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Regulation of gene expression is essential for normal physiological functions; thus deregulation of gene expression is common in disease conditions. One level of regulation of gene expression is performed by noncoding RNAs, among which microRNAs (miRNA) are the best studied. Abnormal expression of these molecular players can lead to pathogenic processes such as heart disease, immune system abnormalities, and carcinogenesis, to name but a few. Of a length of 18–25 nucleotides miRNAs are involved in binding partial complementary sequences within the 3′-UTR (3′-untranslated region) of the target mRNAs. Depending on the type of neoplastic transformation, miRNAs can act both as oncogenes (oncomirs) or as tumor suppressors. Because of the great importance of miRNAs, most researches focus on either their role as biomarkers or their potential as therapeutic targets. Herein, we present the review of microRNA biology, function, and tumorigenic potential with emphasis on their role in lung cancer.