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Disease Markers
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 315824, 12 pages
Research Article

Proteomic Analysis of Serum and Urine of HIV-Monoinfected and HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients Undergoing Long Term Treatment with Nevirapine

1Research Institute for Health Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
3Proteomics Research Laboratory, Genome Institute, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
4Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
5Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University, Salaya Campus, 25/25 Phuttamonthol Sai 4, Nakorn Pathom 73170, Thailand

Received 3 September 2014; Revised 9 November 2014; Accepted 25 November 2014; Published 17 December 2014

Academic Editor: Robert Pichler

Copyright © 2014 Jeerang Wongtrakul et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Nevirapine (NVP) is an effective nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) of particular interest as it is often used in resource limited countries. However, one of the main concerns with the use of NVP is hepatotoxicity and elevation of liver enzymes as a consequence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) containing NVP is more often reported in HIV patients coinfected with hepatitis C virus than in HIV-monoinfected patients. To discover possible markers of NVP induced hepatotoxicity, serum and urine samples from twenty-five HIV or HIV/HCV patients, all of whom had received NVP continuously for at least four months, and healthy controls were subjected to in-solution or in-gel proteomic analysis. A total of 83 differentially regulated proteins consisted of 34 proteins identified in serum by in-solution analysis, 2 proteins identified from serum in a 2D gel electrophoresis analysis, and 47 proteins identified in urine in an in-solution analysis. Three proteins, namely, haptoglobin, Rho-related BTB domain containing protein 3, and death-associated protein kinase 3, were selected for further validation by Western blot analysis and results showed that haptoglobin has potential for further development as an additional marker of NVP induced hepatotoxicity.