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Disease Markers
Volume 2015, Article ID 329607, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/329607
Review Article

Perspective Biological Markers for Autism Spectrum Disorders: Advantages of the Use of Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves in Evaluating Marker Sensitivity and Specificity

1Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro 8, 40126 Bologna, Italy
2Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation ONLUS, IRCCS “S. Maria Nascente”, Via Alfonso Capecelatro 66, 20148 Milan, Italy
3ISOF, CNR, 40129 Bologna, Italy
4Comune di Bologna, 40129 Bologna, Italy
5Section of Biochemistry, Biology and Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Polytechnic University of Marche, 60128 Ancona, Italy
6Child Neurology and Psychiatry Unit, IRCCS Institute of Neurological Sciences, 40139 Bologna, Italy

Received 14 July 2015; Revised 8 October 2015; Accepted 11 October 2015

Academic Editor: Paul Ashwood

Copyright © 2015 Provvidenza M. Abruzzo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders. Recognized causes of ASD include genetic factors, metabolic diseases, toxic and environmental factors, and a combination of these. Available tests fail to recognize genetic abnormalities in about 70% of ASD children, where diagnosis is solely based on behavioral signs and symptoms, which are difficult to evaluate in very young children. Although it is advisable that specific psychotherapeutic and pedagogic interventions are initiated as early as possible, early diagnosis is hampered by the lack of nongenetic specific biological markers. In the past ten years, the scientific literature has reported dozens of neurophysiological and biochemical alterations in ASD children; however no real biomarker has emerged. Such literature is here reviewed in the light of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis, a very valuable statistical tool, which evaluates the sensitivity and the specificity of biomarkers to be used in diagnostic decision making. We also apply ROC analysis to some of our previously published data and discuss the increased diagnostic value of combining more variables in one ROC curve analysis. We also discuss the use of biomarkers as a tool for advancing our understanding of nonsyndromic ASD.