Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Disease Markers
Volume 2015, Article ID 397613, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/397613
Research Article

Capillary Deposition of Complement C4d and C3d in Chinese Renal Allograft Biopsies

Rong Lv,1,2,3,4 Wei Zhang,1,2,3,4 Fei Han,1,2,3,4 Guangjun Liu,1,2,3,4 Wenqing Xie,1,2,3,4 and Jianghua Chen1,2,3,4

1Kidney Disease Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003, China
2Key Laboratory of Nephropathy, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003, China
3Kidney Disease Immunology Laboratory, The Third Grade Laboratory, State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003, China
4Key Laboratory of Multiple Organ Transplantation, Ministry of Health, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003, China

Received 26 December 2014; Revised 8 February 2015; Accepted 9 February 2015

Academic Editor: Paul Ashwood

Copyright © 2015 Rong Lv et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. C. Racusen, K. Solesz, R. B. Colvin et al., “The Banff 97 working classification of renal allograft pathology,” Kidney International, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 713–723, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  2. H. E. Feucht, H. Schneeberger, G. Hillebrand et al., “Capillary deposition of C4d complement fragment and early renal graft loss,” Kidney International, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1333–1338, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H. Regele, G. A. Böhmig, A. Habicht et al., “Capillary deposition of complement split product C4d in renal allografts is associated with basement membrane injury in peritubular and glomerular capillaries: a contribution of humoral immunity to chronic allograft rejection,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 2371–2380, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. B. Collins, E. E. Schneeberger, M. A. Pascual et al., “Complement activation in acute humoral renal allograft rejection: diagnostic significance of C4d deposits in peritubular capillaries,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 2208–2214, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Sund, T. Hovig, A. V. Reisæter, H. Scott, Ø. Bentdal, and T. E. Mollnes, “Complement activation in early protocol kidney graft biopsies after living-donor transplantation,” Transplantation, vol. 75, no. 8, pp. 1204–1213, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. R. J. Kuypers, E. Lerut, P. Evenepoel, B. Maes, Y. Vanrenterghem, and B. van Damme, “C3d deposition in peritubular capillaries indicates a variant of acute renal allograft rejection characterized by a worse clinical outcome,” Transplantation, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 102–108, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Y. Vanrenterghem, “Impact of acute rejection on the long-term outcome after renal transplantation,” Graft, vol. 3, pp. 31–33, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  8. V. Nickeleit, M. Zeiler, F. Gudat, G. Thiel, and M. J. Mihatsch, “Detection of the complement degradation product C4d in renal allografts: diagnostic and therapeutic implications,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 242–251, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Mauiyyedi, M. Crespo, A. Bernard Collins et al., “Acute humoral rejection in kidney transplantation: II. Morphology, immunopathology, and pathologic classification,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 779–787, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. F. R. Toapanta and T. M. Ross, “Complement-mediated activation of the adaptive immune responses,” Immunologic Research, vol. 36, no. 1–3, pp. 197–210, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Sahu and J. D. Lambris, “Structure and biology of complement protein C3, a connecting link between innate and acquired immunity,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 180, pp. 35–48, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. J. Everly, J. J. Everly, L. J. Arend et al., “Reducing de novo donor-specific antibody levels during acute rejection diminishes renal allograft loss,” The American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 1063–1071, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. Wiebe, I. W. Gibson, T. D. Blydt-Hansen et al., “Evolution and clinical pathologic correlations of de novo donor-specific HLA antibody post kidney transplant,” The American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 1157–1167, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. G. Hidalgo, P. M. Campbell, B. Sis et al., “De novo donor-specific antibody at the time of kidney transplant biopsy associates with microvascular pathology and late graft failure,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 2532–2541, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. M. Kimball, M. A. Baker, M. B. Wagner, and A. King, “Surveillance of alloantibodies after transplantation identifies the risk of chronic rejection,” Kidney International, vol. 79, no. 10, pp. 1131–1137, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. Thammanichanond, A. Ingsathit, T. Mongkolsuk et al., “Pre-transplant donor specific antibody and its clinical significance in kidney transplantation,” Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 48–54, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. H. Kerman, C. G. Orosz, and M. I. Lorber, “Clinical relevance of anti-HLA antibodies pre and post transplant,” The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 313, no. 5, pp. 275–278, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Solez, R. B. Colvin, L. C. Racusen et al., “Banff '05 meeting report: differential diagnosis of chronic allograft injury and elimination of chronic allograft nephropathy (‘CAN’),” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 518–526, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. M. Bhowmik, A. K. Dinda, P. Mahanta, and S. K. Agarwal, “The evolution of the Banff classification schema for diagnosing renal allograft rejection and its implications for clinicians,” Indian Journal of Nephrology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 2–8, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Elshafie and P. N. Furness, “Identification of lesions indicating rejection in kidney transplant biopsies: tubulitis is severely under-detected by conventional microscopy,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 1252–1255, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J.-Y. Wu, J.-H. Chen, Y.-M. Wang et al., “Completely reversed acute rejection episodes do not influence the long-term renal allograft survival,” Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 106–109, 2003 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. L. Madden, J. G. Mulhern, B. J. Benedetto et al., “Completely reversed acute rejection is not a significant risk factor for the development of chronic rejection in renal allograft recipients,” Transplant International, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 344–350, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. R. Welch, L. S. Beischel, and D. P. Witte, “Differential expression of complement C3 and C4 in the human kidney,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 1451–1458, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. H. Sacks, W. Zhou, P. A. Andrews, and B. Hartley, “Endogenous complement C3 synthesis in immune complex nephritis,” The Lancet, vol. 342, no. 8882, pp. 1273–1274, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. A. Andrews, A. Pani, W. Zhou, and S. H. Sacks, “Local transcription of complement C3 in human allograft rejection: evidence for a pathogenic role and correlation to histology and outcome,” Transplantation, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 637–640, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. R. Pratt, S. A. Basheer, and S. H. Sacks, “Local synthesis of complement component C3 regulates acute renal transplant rejection,” Nature Medicine, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 582–587, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus