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Disease Markers
Volume 2015, Article ID 472360, 10 pages
Review Article

Biomarkers of Lung Injury in Cardiothoracic Surgery

1HaemoScan BV, 9723 JC Groningen, Netherlands
2Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, Netherlands

Received 1 January 2015; Accepted 2 March 2015

Academic Editor: Andreas Pich

Copyright © 2015 Gerwin Erik Engels and Willem van Oeveren. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Diagnosis of pulmonary dysfunction is currently almost entirely based on a vast series of physiological changes, but comprehensive research is focused on determining biomarkers for early diagnosis of pulmonary dysfunction. Here we discuss the use of biomarkers of lung injury in cardiothoracic surgery and their ability to detect subtle pulmonary dysfunction in the perioperative period. Degranulation products of neutrophils are often used as biomarker since they have detrimental effects on the pulmonary tissue by themselves. However, these substances are not lung specific. Lung epithelium specific proteins offer more specificity and slowly find their way into clinical studies.