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Disease Markers
Volume 2015, Article ID 478150, 7 pages
Research Article

Effect of Increased Water Intake on Urinary DNA Adduct Levels and Mutagenicity in Smokers: A Randomized Study

1Danone Research, avenue de la Vauve, 91120 Palaiseau, France
2Aixial Pharma, 92300 Levallois-Perret, France
3Institute of European Expertise in Physiology, 21 rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris, France
4IMBE, UMR CNRS 7263, IRD 237, Faculté de Pharmacie, Aix-Marseille Université, 13331 Marseille, France
5Department of Environmental Health, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 38 Woodsdale Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45216, USA

Received 20 May 2015; Accepted 21 July 2015

Academic Editor: Kishore Chaudhry

Copyright © 2015 Inmaculada Buendia Jimenez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The association between fluid intake and bladder cancer risk remains controversial. Very little is known about to which extent the amount of water intake influences the action of excreting toxics upon the urinary system. This proof of concept trial investigates the effect of water intake on mutagenesis in smokers, a high risk population for bladder cancer. Methods. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria. Male subjects aged 2045–45 y/o, smokers, and small drinkers (24-hour urinary volume <1 L and osmolality >700 mOsmol/kg). Outcomes. 4-ABP DNA adducts formation in exfoliated bladder cells in 24-hour urine collection and urinary mutagenicity in 24-hour urine. Test Group. Subjects consumed 1.5 L daily of the study product (EVIAN) on top of their usual water intake for 50 days. Control Group. Subjects continued their usual lifestyle habits. Results. 65 subjects were randomized. Mean age was 30 y/o and mean cigarettes per day were 20. A slight decrease in adducts formation was observed between baseline and last visit but no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the groups. Urinary mutagenicity significantly decreased. The study shows that increasing water intake decreases urinary mutagenicity. It is not confirmed by urinary adducts formation. Further research would be necessary.