Disease Markers / 2015 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

Extracellular Vesicles as Biomarkers of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Figure 1

Role of extracellular vesicles in inflammation. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from mature dendritic cells (DC) provide antigen to T cells and promote a proinflammatory response, mediated by host factors present within exosomes and apoptotic bodies (TNF, HMGB1, etc.). Autoantigens in EVs are recognized by autoantibodies and form immune complexes. Platelet-derived microvesicles (PMVs) activate DC and carry IL-1β. EVs in target cell can be involved in antigen presentation and the transfer of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and antigens, participating in immune regulation. Finally, EVs activate or transfer surface receptors and deliver various RNA species (including mRNA and small RNAs) to target cells. DC: dendritic cell, EVs: extracellular vesicles, MHC: major histocompatibility complex, and PMVs: platelet-derived microvesicles.

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