Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Disease Markers
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 727401, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/727401
Review Article

Electrocardiographic Predictors of Cardiovascular Mortality

1Department of Functional Sciences, Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 300173 Timisoara, Romania
21st Department of Internal Medicine, Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 300173 Timisoara, Romania

Received 11 January 2015; Revised 20 June 2015; Accepted 2 July 2015

Academic Editor: Donald H. Chace

Copyright © 2015 Ioana Mozos and Alexandru Caraba. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. Z. Soliman, R. J. Prineas, L. D. Case et al., “Electrocardiographic and clinical predictors separating atherosclerotic sudden cardiac death from incident coronary heart disease,” Heart, vol. 97, no. 19, pp. 1597–1601, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. Nichol, T. P. Aufderheide, B. Eigel et al., “Regional systems of care for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A policy statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation, vol. 121, no. 5, pp. 709–729, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. Thiene, D. Corrado, I. Rigato, and C. Basso, “Why and how to support screening strategies to prevent sudden death in athletes,” Cell and Tissue Research, vol. 348, no. 2, pp. 315–318, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. Schmied and M. Borjesson, “Sudden cardiac death in athletes,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 275, no. 2, pp. 93–103, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. Corrado, C. Schmied, C. Basso et al., “Risk of sports: do we need a pre-participation screening for competitive and leisure athletes?” European Heart Journal, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 934–944, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. E. Trivax and P. A. McCullough, “Phidippides cardiomyopathy: a review and case illustration,” Clinical Cardiology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 69–73, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Mangold, U. Kramer, E. Franzen et al., “Detection of cardiovascular disease in elite athletes using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging,” Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin, vol. 185, no. 12, pp. 1167–1174, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Zorzi, M. ElMaghawry, and D. Corrado, “Evolving interpretation of the athlete's electrocardiogram: from European Society of Cardiology and Stanford criteria, to Seattle criteria and beyond,” Journal of Electrocardiology, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 283–291, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. D. Corrado, C. Calore, A. Zorzi, and F. Migliore, “Improving the interpretation of the athlete's electrocardiogram,” European Heart Journal, vol. 34, no. 47, pp. 3606–3609, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Corrado, A. Pelliccia, H. Heidbuchel et al., “Recommendations for interpretation of 12-lead electrocardiogram in the athlete,” European Heart Journal, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 243–259, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. J. A. Drezner, M. J. Ackerman, J. Anderson et al., “Electrocardiographic interpretation in athletes: the ‘Seattle Criteria’,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 122–124, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. N. Sheikh, M. Papadakis, S. Ghani et al., “Comparison of electrocardiographic criteria for the detection of cardiac abnormalities in elite black and white athletes,” Circulation, vol. 129, no. 16, pp. 1637–1649, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. R. Riding, N. Sheikh, C. Adamuz et al., “Comparison of three current sets of electrocardiographic interpretation criteria for use in screening athletes,” Heart, vol. 101, no. 5, pp. 384–390, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. R. J. Prineas, R. S. Crow, and Z. M. Zhang, The Minnesota Code Manual of Electrocardiographic Findings: Including Measurement and Comparison with the Novacode; Standards and Procedures for ECG Measurement in Epidemiologic and Clinical Trials, Springer Science+Business Media, 2009.
  15. J. W. Magnani, E. Z. Gorodeski, V. M. Johnson et al., “P wave duration is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality outcomes: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,” Heart Rhythm, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 93–100, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. B. De Luna, P. Platonov, F. G. Cosio et al., “Interatrial blocks. A separate entity from left atrial enlargement: a consensus report,” Journal of Electrocardiology, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 445–451, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. Vepsäläinen, M. Laakso, S. Lehto, A. Juutilainen, J. Airaksinen, and T. Rönnemaa, “Prolonged P wave duration predicts stroke mortality among type 2 diabetic patients with prevalent non-major macrovascular disease,” BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 168–174, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. V. Ariyarajah, M. Kranis, S. Apiyasawat, and D. H. Spodick, “Potential factors that affect electrocardiographic progression of interatrial block,” Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. V. Ariyarajah, K. Mercado, S. Apiyasawat, P. Puri, and D. H. Spodick, “Correlation of left atrial size with p-wave duration in interatrial block,” Chest, vol. 128, no. 4, pp. 2615–2618, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. B. Goyal and D. H. Spodick, “Electromechanical dysfunction of the left atrium associated with interatrial block,” American Heart Journal, vol. 142, no. 5, pp. 823–827, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. G. Tereshchenko, A. J. Shah, Y. Li, and E. Z. Soliman, “Electrocardiographic deep terminal negativity of the P wave in V1 and risk of mortality: the national health and nutrition examination survey III,” Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 1242–1248, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. G. Tereshchenko, C. A. Henrikson, N. Sotoodehnia et al., “Electrocardiographic deep terminal negativity of the P wave in V1 and risk of sudden cardiac death: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study,” Journal of the American Heart Association, vol. 3, no. 6, Article ID e001387, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. J. J. Goldberger and M. E. Cain, “AHA/ACC Foundation/Heart Rhythm Society scientific statement on noninvasive risk stratification techniques for identifying patients at risk for Sudden cardiac death: a scientific statement from the AHA Council on Clinical Cardiology Committee on Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 52, pp. 1179–1199, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  24. V. Batchvarov and M. Malik, “Individual patterns of QT/RR relationship,” Cardiac Electrophysiology Review, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 282–288, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. I. Mozos, C. Serban, and R. Mihaescu, “The relation between arterial blood pressure variables and ventricular repolarization parameters,” International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine and Public Health, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 860–875, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. S. Al-Zaiti, J. A. Fallavollita, J. M. Canty Jr., and M. G. Carey, “Electrocardiographic predictors of sudden and non-sudden cardiac death in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy,” Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 527–533, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. Muntean, A. Varro, N. Jost et al., Translational Research in Cardiovascular Disease. A Cross-Border Approach, Victor Babes Publishing House, Timisoara, Romania, 2009.
  28. R. Liew, “Electrocardiogram-based predictors of sudden cardiac death in patients with coronary artery disease,” Clinical Cardiology, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 466–473, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. D. Desai, T. S. Yaw, T. Yamazaki, A. Kaykha, S. Chun, and V. F. Froelicher, “Prognostic significance of quantitative QRS duration,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 119, no. 7, pp. 600–606, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. S. Shadaksharappa, J. M. Kalbfleisch, L. L. Conrad, and N. K. Sarkar, “Recognition and significance of intraventricular block due to myocardial infarction (peri-infarction block),” Circulation, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 20–26, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. K. Das, C. Saha, H. El Masry et al., “Fragmented QRS on a 12-lead ECG: a predictor of mortality and cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease,” Heart Rhythm, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 1385–1392, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. K. Das, H. Suradi, W. Maskoun et al., “Fragmented wide QRS on a 12-lead ECG. A sign of myocardial scar and poor prognosis,” Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 258–268, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. Yildirim, D. Karaçimen, K. S. Özcan et al., “The relationship between fragmentation on electrocardiography and in-hospital prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 20, pp. 913–919, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. Jain, R. Singh, S. Yamini, and M. K. Das, “Fragmented ECG as a risk marker in cardiovascular diseases,” Current Cardiology Reviews, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 277–286, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. Torigoe, A. Tamura, Y. Kawano, K. Shinozaki, M. Kotoku, and J. Kadota, “The number of leads with fragmented QRS is independently associated with cardiac death or hospitalization for heart failure in patients with prior myocardial infarction,” Journal of Cardiology, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 36–41, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. Y. Çiçek, S. A. Kocaman, M. E. Durakoglugil et al., “Relationship of fragmented QRS with prognostic markers and long-term major adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery,” Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 112–117, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. Baranchuk, A. Enriquez, J. García-Niebla, A. Bayés-Genís, R. Villuendas, and A. B. de Luna, “Differential diagnosis of rSr' pattern in leads V1-V2. Comprehensive review and proposed algorithm,” Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 7–17, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. D. G. Strauss, R. H. Selvester, J. A. C. Lima et al., “ECG quantification of myocardial scar in cardiomyopathy patients with or without conduction defects,” Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 327–336, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. G. Strauss, J. E. Poole, G. S. Wagner et al., “An ECG index of myocardial scar enhances prediction of defibrillator shocks: an analysis of the Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial,” Heart Rhythm, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 38–45, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. I. Furman, H. L. Dauerman, R. J. Goldberg et al., “Twenty-two year (1975 to 1997) trends in the incidence, in-hospital and long-term case fatality rates from initial Q-wave and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction: a multi-hospital, community-wide perspective,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 37, pp. 1571–1580, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  41. M. E. Hands, E. F. Cook, P. H. Stone et al., “Electrocardiographic diagnosis of myocardial infarction in the presence of complete left bundle branch block,” The American Heart Journal, vol. 116, no. 1, pp. 23–31, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. C. Kontos, R. H. McQueen, R. L. Jesse, J. L. Tatum, and J. P. Ornato, “Can myocardial infarction be rapidly identified in emergency department patients who have left bundle-branch block?” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 431–438, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. Potse, D. Krause, L. Bacharova, R. Krause, F. W. Prinzen, and A. Auricchio, “Similarities and differences between electrocardiogram signs of left bundle-branch block and left-ventricular uncoupling,” Europace, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. v33–v39, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Papadakis, F. Carre, G. Kervio et al., “The prevalence, distribution, and clinical outcomes of electrocardiographic repolarization patterns in male athletes of African/Afro-Caribbean origin,” European Heart Journal, vol. 32, no. 18, pp. 2304–2313, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. Kumar, R. J. Prineas, A. M. Arnold et al., “Prevalence, prognosis, and implications of isolated minor nonspecific ST-segment and T-wave abnormalities in older adults. Cardiovascular health study,” Circulation, vol. 118, no. 25, pp. 2790–2796, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. P. Greenland, X. Xie, K. Liu et al., “Impact of minor electrocardiographic ST-segment and/or T-wave abnormalities on cardiovascular mortality during long-term follow-up,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 91, no. 9, pp. 1068–1074, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. W. B. Kannel, K. Anderson, D. L. McGee, L. S. Degatano, and M. J. Stampfer, “Nonspecific electrocardiographic abnormality as a predictor of coronary heart disease,” American Heart Journal, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 370–376, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. Kumar and D. M. Lloyd-Jones, “Clinical significance of minor nonspecific ST-segment and T-wave abnormalities in asymptomatic subjects: a systematic review,” Cardiology in Review, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 133–142, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. L. Daviglus, Y. Liao, P. Greenland et al., “Association of nonspecific minor ST-T abnormalities with cardiovascular mortality,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 281, no. 6, pp. 530–536, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. Zorzi, L. Leoni, F. M. Di Paolo et al., “Differential diagnosis between early repolarization of athlete's heart and coved-type Brugada electrocardiogram,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 529–532, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. K. Kanters, C. Haarmark, E. Vedel-Larsen et al., “Tpeak Tend interval in long QT syndrome,” Journal of Electrocardiology, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 603–608, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. I. Gussack and C. Antzelevitch, Electrical Diseases of the Heart. Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention, Springer, London, UK, 2008.
  53. J. A. Laukkanen, E. Di Angelantonio, H. Khan, S. Kurl, K. Ronkainen, and P. Rautaharju, “T-wave inversion, QRS duration, and QRS/T angle as electrocardiographic predictors of the risk for sudden cardiac death,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 113, no. 7, pp. 1178–1183, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. B. de Luna, W. Zareba, M. Fiol et al., “Negative T wave in ischemic heart disease: a consensus article,” Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 426–441, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. F. Migliore, A. Zorzi, M. P. Marra et al., “Myocardial edema underlies dynamic T-wave inversion (Wellens' ECG pattern) in patients with reversible left ventricular dysfunction,” Heart Rhythm, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1629–1634, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. F. Migliore, A. Zorzi, M. Perazzolo Marra, S. Iliceto, and D. Corrado, “Myocardial edema as a substrate of electrocardiographic abnormalities and life-threatening arrhythmias in reversible ventricular dysfunction of takotsubo cardiomyopathy: imaging evidence, presumed mechanisms, and implications for therapy,” Heart Rhythm, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. F. Migliore, A. Zorzi, P. Michieli et al., “Prevalence of cardiomyopathy in italian asymptomatic children with electrocardiographic T-wave inversion at preparticipation screening,” Circulation, vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 529–538, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. E. Ayhan, T. Isik, H. Uyarel et al., “Prognostic significance of T-wave amplitude in lead aVR on the admission electrocardiography in patients with anterior wall ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated by primary percutaneous intervention,” Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 51–57, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. R. L. Verrier, T. Klingenheben, M. Malik et al., “Microvolt T-wave alternans: physiological basis, methods of measurement, and clinical utility—consensus guideline by International Society for Holter and Noninvasive Electrocardiology,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 58, no. 13, pp. 1309–1324, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. X. Q. Quan, H. L. Zhou, L. Ruan et al., “Ability of ambulatory ECG-based T-wave alternans to modify risk assessment of cardiac events: a systematic review,” BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, vol. 14, article 198, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. J. A. Kors, M. C. de Bruyne, A. W. Hoes et al., “T axis as an indicator of risk of cardiac events in elderly people,” The Lancet, vol. 352, no. 9128, pp. 601–605, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. P. M. Rautaharju, J. C. Nelson, R. A. Kronmal et al., “Usefulness of T-axis deviation as an independent risk indicator for incident cardiac events in older men and women free from coronary heart disease (the Cardiovascular Health Study),” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 118–123, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. Z. M. Zhang, R. J. Prineas, D. Case, E. Z. Soliman, and P. M. Rautaharju, “Comparison of the prognostic significance of the electrocardiographic QRS/T angles in predicting incident coronary heart disease and total mortality,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 844–849, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  64. W. Whang, D. Shimbo, E. B. Levitan et al., “Relations between QRS/T angle, cardiac risk factors, and mortality in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III),” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 109, no. 7, pp. 981–987, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. P. M. Rautaharju, Z.-M. Zhang, W. K. Haisty, A. M. Kucharska-Newton, W. D. Rosamond, and E. Z. Soliman, “Electrocardiographic repolarization-related predictors of coronary heart disease and sudden cardiac deaths in men and women with cardiovascular disease in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study,” Journal of Electrocardiology, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 101–111, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. P. M. Rautaharju, Z.-M. Zhang, J. Warren et al., “Electrocardiographic predictors of coronary heart disease and sudden cardiac deaths in men and women free from cardiovascular disease in the Atherosclerosis Risk in communities study,” Journal of the American Heart Association, vol. 2, no. 3, Article ID e000061, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. P. M. Rautaharju, Z. M. Zhang, M. Vitolins et al., “Electrocardiographic repolarization-related variables as predictors of coronary heart disease death in the women's health initiative study,” Journal of the American Heart Association, vol. 3, no. 4, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. H. Dash and T. J. Ciotola, “Morphology of ventricular premature beats as an aid in the electrocardiographic diagnosis of myocardial infarction,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 458–461, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. B. J. Gersh, B. J. Maron, R. O. Bonow et al., “2011 ACCF/AHA guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 142, no. 6, pp. e153–e203, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. Biffi, A. Pelliccia, L. Verdile et al., “Long-term clinical significance of frequent and complex ventricular tachyarrhythmias in trained athletes,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 446–452, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. D. Corrado, C. Basso, G. Rizzoli, M. Schiavon, and G. Thiene, “Does sports activity enhance the risk of sudden death in adolescents and young adults?” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 1959–1963, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. La Gerche, A. T. Burns, D. J. Mooney et al., “Exercise-induced right ventricular dysfunction and structural remodelling in endurance athletes,” European Heart Journal, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 998–1006, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. L. Verdile, B. J. Maron, A. Pelliccia, A. Spataro, M. Santini, and A. Biffi, “Clinical significance of exercise-induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias in trained athletes without cardiovascular abnormalities,” Heart Rhythm, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 78–85, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. Sokolow and T. P. Lyon, “The ventricular complex in left ventricular hypertrophy as obtained by unipolar precordial and limb leads,” The American Heart Journal, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 161–186, 1949. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. T. J. Molloy, P. M. Okin, R. B. Devereux, and P. Kligfield, “Electrocardiographic detection of left ventricular hypertrophy by the simple QRS voltage-duration product,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1180–1186, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. D. W. Romhilt and E. H. Estes Jr., “A point-score system for the ECG diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy,” The American Heart Journal, vol. 75, no. 6, pp. 752–758, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. C. D. L. Mazzaro, F. D. A. Costa, M. T. N. Bombig et al., “Ventricular mass and electrocardiographic criteria of hypertrophy: evaluation of new score,” Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 227–253, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. C. S. Desai, H. Ning, and D. M. Lloyd-Jones, “Competing cardiovascular outcomes associated with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study,” Heart, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 330–334, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. W. B. Kannel, T. Gordon, W. P. Castelli, and J. R. Margolis, “Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy and risk of coronary heart disease. The Framingham study,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 813–822, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. W. B. Kannel, A. L. Dannenberg, and D. Levy, “Population implications of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 60, no. 17, pp. 85–93, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. J. Ishikawa, S. Ishikawa, T. Kabutoya et al., “Cornell product left ventricular hypertrophy in electrocardiogram and the risk of stroke in a general population,” Hypertension, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 28–34, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. A. M. Greve, M. Dalsgaard, C. N. Bang et al., “Usefulness of the electrocardiogram in predicting cardiovascular mortality in asymptomatic adults with aortic stenosis (from the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis Study),” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 114, no. 5, pp. 751–756, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. C. N. Bang, R. B. Devereux, and P. M. Okin, “Regression of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy or strain is associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients independent of blood pressure reduction—a LIFE review,” Journal of Electrocardiology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 630–635, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. L. Bacharova, H. Chen, E. H. Estes et al., “Determinants of discrepancies in detection and comparison of the prognostic significance of left ventricular hypertrophy by electrocardiogram and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 515–522, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. P. Spirito, A. Pelliccia, M. A. Proschan et al., “Morphology of the ‘athlete's heart’ assessed by echocardiography in 947 elite athletes representing 27 sports,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 74, no. 8, pp. 802–806, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. L. Bacharova, M. Tibenska, D. Kucerova, O. Kyselovicova, H. Medekova, and J. Kyselovic, “Decrease in QRS amplitude in juvenile female competitive athletes during the initial twenty-one months of intensive training,” Cardiology Journal, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 260–265, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. A. Pelliccia, M. S. Maron, and B. J. Maron, “Assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy in a trained athlete: differential diagnosis of physiologic athlete's heart from pathologic hypertrophy,” Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 387–396, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. J. E. Trivax, B. A. Franklin, J. A. Goldstein et al., “Acute cardiac effects of marathon running,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 1148–1153, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. C. Calore, P. Melacini, A. Pelliccia et al., “Prevalence and clinical meaning of isolated increase of QRS voltages in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy versus athlete's heart: relevance to athletic screening,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 168, no. 4, pp. 4494–4497, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus