Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Disease Markers
Volume 2015, Article ID 747036, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/747036
Research Article

Measurement of Cytokines and Adhesion Molecules in the First 72 Hours after Severe Trauma: Association with Severity and Outcome

1Centro Hospitalar de São João (CHSJ), Porto, Portugal
2Orthopaedic Department and Emergency and Intensive Care Department, Alameda Professor Hernani Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
3CHSJ, Orthopaedic Department and Emergency and Intensive Care Department, Alameda Professor Hernani Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
4CHSJ, Anesthesiology Department, Alameda Professor Hernani Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
5CHSJ, Orthopaedic Department, Alameda Professor Hernani Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
6Centro Hospitalar São João, Orthopaedic Department, Alameda Professor Hernani Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
7Centro Hospitalar de São João, Clinical Pathology Department, Alameda Professor Hernani Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
8Emergency and Intensive Care Department, Centro Hospitalar Sao Joao, Alameda Professor Hernani Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
9Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Portugal

Received 5 January 2015; Revised 24 February 2015; Accepted 24 February 2015

Academic Editor: Natacha Turck

Copyright © 2015 António Sousa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. F. Lecky, M. Woodford, and D. W. Yates, “Trends in trauma care in England and Wales 1989–97,” The Lancet, vol. 355, no. 9217, pp. 1771–1775, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. B. Mitra, F. Tullio, P. A. Cameron, and M. Fitzgerald, “Trauma patients with the ‘triad of death’,” Emergency Medicine Journal, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 622–625, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. A. Cherry, T. S. King, D. E. Carney, P. Bryant, and R. N. Cooney, “Trauma team activation and the impact on mortality,” Journal of Trauma—Injury, Infection and Critical Care, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 326–330, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. C. Bone, “Immunologic dissonance: a continuing evolution in our understanding of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS),” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 125, no. 8, pp. 680–687, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. W. Xiao, M. N. Mindrinos, J. Seok et al., “A genomic storm in critically injured humans,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 208, no. 13, pp. 2581–2590, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. P. V. Giannoudis, F. Hildebrand, and H. C. Pape, “Inflammatory serum markers in patients with multiple trauma. Can they predict outcome?” The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery—British Volume, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 313–323, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. J. Cohen, K. Brohi, C. S. Calfee et al., “Early release of high mobility group box nuclear protein 1 after severe trauma in humans: role of injury severity and tissue hypoperfusion,” Critical Care, vol. 13, no. 6, article R174, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. Iwasaka and T. Noguchi, “Th1/Th2 balance in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS),” Nippon Rinsho, vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 2237–2243, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. “American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference: definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 864–874, 1992.
  10. A. Lenz, G. A. Franklin, and W. G. Cheadle, “Systemic inflammation after trauma,” Injury, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 1336–1345, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. R. Klune, R. Dhupar, J. Cardinal, T. R. Billiar, and A. Tsung, “HMGB1: endogenous danger signaling,” Molecular Medicine, vol. 14, no. 7-8, pp. 476–484, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. Ulloa and D. Messmer, “High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein: friend and foe,” Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 189–201, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. F. Stahel, W. R. Smith, and E. E. Moore, “Role of biological modifiers regulating the immune response after trauma,” Injury, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 1409–1422, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. Tsukamoto, R. S. Chanthaphavong, and H.-C. Pape, “Current theories on the pathophysiology of multiple organ failure after trauma,” Injury, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. Martin, C. Boisson, M. Haccoun, L. Thomachot, and J.-L. Mege, “Patterns of cytokine evolution (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6) after septic shock, hemorrhagic shock, and severe trauma,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 1813–1819, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. N. Chawda, F. Hildebrand, H. C. Pape, and P. V. Giannoudis, “Predicting outcome after multiple trauma: which scoring system?” Injury, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 347–358, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. V. Giannoudis, R. M. Smith, C. W. Ramsden, D. Sharples, R. A. Dickson, and P. J. Guillou, “Molecular mediators and trauma: effects of accidental trauma on the production of plasma elastase, IL-6, sICAM-1, and sE-selectin,” Injury, vol. 27, no. 5, p. 372, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. F. Gebhard, H. Pfetsch, G. Steinbach, W. Strecker, L. Kinzl, and U. B. Brückner, “Is interleukin 6 an early marker of injury severity following major trauma in humans?” Archives of Surgery, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 291–295, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H.-C. Pape, M. van Griensven, J. Rice et al., “Major secondary surgery in blunt trauma patients and perioperative cytokine liberation: determination of the clinical relevance of biochemical markers,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 989–1000, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. Raymondos, M. U. Martin, T. Schmudlach et al., “Early alveolar and systemic mediator release in patients at different risks for ARDS after multiple trauma,” Injury, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 189–195, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. W. Y. Park, R. B. Goodman, K. P. Steinberg et al., “Cytokine balance in the lungs of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome,” The American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 164, no. 10 I, pp. 1896–1903, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. M. Smith, P. V. Giannoudis, M. C. Bellamy, S. L. Perry, R. A. Dickson, and P. J. Guillou, “Interleukin-10 release and monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR expression during femoral nailing,” Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, vol. 373, pp. 233–240, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. M. Law, H. G. Cryer, E. Abraham et al., “Elevated levels of soluble ICAM-1 correlate with the development of multiple organ failure in severely injured trauma patients,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 100–110, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Cheron, B. Floccard, B. Allaouchiche et al., “Lack of recovery in monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR expression is independently associated with the development of sepsis after major trauma,” Critical Care, vol. 14, no. 6, article R208, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus