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Disease Markers
Volume 2015, Article ID 860120, 12 pages
Research Article

The Role of Circulating Tight Junction Proteins in Evaluating Blood Brain Barrier Disruption following Intracranial Hemorrhage

1Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Guangdong 515041, China
2Shantou University Medical College, Guangdong 515041, China

Received 16 July 2015; Revised 14 September 2015; Accepted 16 September 2015

Academic Editor: Lance A. Liotta

Copyright © 2015 Xiaoyang Jiao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Brain injury after intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) results in significant morbidity and mortality. Blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption is a hallmark of ICH-induced brain injury; however, data mirroring BBB disruption in human ICH are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of circulating biomarkers in evaluating BBB disruption after ICH. Twenty-two patients with ICH were recruited in this study. Concentrations of the tight junction proteins (TJs) Claudin-5 (CLDN5), Occludin (OCLN), and zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from patients with ICH. The white blood cell (WBC) count in blood and CSF, albumin (ALB) levels in the CSF (), and the BBB ratio were significantly higher in the ICH than in controls (). Significantly higher levels of CLDN5, OCLN, ZO-1, MMP-9, and VEGF in CSF were observed in the ICH group; these biomarkers were also positively associated with BBB ratio (). Our data revealed that circulating TJs could be considered the potential biomarkers reflecting the integrity of the BBB in ICH.