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Disease Markers
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 3528064, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3528064
Research Article

CYC1 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Patients with Breast Cancer

Cancer Biology Research Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China

Received 12 November 2015; Accepted 10 April 2016

Academic Editor: Lance A. Liotta

Copyright © 2016 Yingyan Han et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cytochrome c-1 (CYC1) is an important subunit of mitochondrial complex III. However, its role in tumor progression is unclear. We found that CYC1 was upregulated in breast tumor tissues, especially in tissues with lymph node metastasis. And higher expression of CYC1 correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients using online databases and tools. Then we confirmed that CYC1 contributed to metastasis and proliferation in two highly metastatic human breast cancer cell lines. Digging into the biological function of CYC1, we found the activity of mitochondrial complex III decreased due to silencing CYC1. Then the ratio of AMP to ATP increased and AMPK was activated. Analyzing units of other mitochondrial complexes, we did not find knockdown of CYC1 expression reduced expression of any other unit of OXPHOS. We concluded that CYC1 promoted tumor metastasis via suppressing activation of AMPK and contributed to tumor growth via facilitating production of ATP. Our results indicated that CYC1 plays crucial roles in breast cancer progression and might be a predictive factor assisting future patient diagnosis.