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Disease Markers
Volume 2016, Article ID 7124186, 13 pages
Research Article

Increased Umbilical Cord PAI-1 Levels in Placental Insufficiency Are Associated with Fetal Hypoxia and Angiogenesis

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
2Children’s Health Research Institute, Departments of Biochemistry and Pediatrics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada N6C 2V5

Received 22 September 2015; Revised 12 December 2015; Accepted 16 December 2015

Academic Editor: Irene Rebelo

Copyright © 2016 Maxim D. Seferovic and Madhulika B. Gupta. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Supplementary Material

We sought to determine if the changes in umbilical blood proteins observed were related either to the onset of labor or to the gestational age of the infant. No significant changes were observed for PAI-1, VEGF, or FGF-2 in association with labor in either group. Similarly, umbilical cord oxygen levels were unaffected in our subjects (Supplemental Figure 1). There was also no change in PAI-1 or VEGF associated with GA. There was a significant negative correlation of FGF-2 with GA for controls that could not be seen in IUGR patients (supplemental Figure 2). FGF-2 has previously been reported to gradually decrease in fetal circulation after 20 weeks in normal pregnancy (Hill et al., 1995).

Hill, D.J., Tevaarwerk, G.J., Arany, E., Kilkenny, D., Gregory, M., Langford, K.S., and Miell, J. (1995). Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is present in maternal and cord serum, and in the mother is associated with a binding protein immunologically related to the FGF receptor-1. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80 :1822–1831.

  1. Supplementary Material