Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Disease Markers
Volume 2016, Article ID 8376979, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8376979
Research Article

Is GERD a Factor in Osteonecrosis of the Jaw? Evidence of Pathology Linked to G6PD Deficiency and Sulfomucins

1Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
2Abacus Enterprises, Lummi Island, WA, USA
3Health-e-Iron, LLC, 2800 Waymaker Way, No. 12, Austin, TX 78746, USA
4Iron Disorders Institute, Greenville, SC 29615, USA

Received 11 April 2016; Revised 18 May 2016; Accepted 20 July 2016

Academic Editor: Benedita Sampaio-Maia

Copyright © 2016 Stephanie Seneff et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), a rare side effect of bisphosphonate therapy, is a debilitating disorder with a poorly understood etiology. FDA’s Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) provides the opportunity to investigate this disease. Our goals were to analyze FAERS data to discover possible relationships between ONJ and specific conditions and drugs and then to consult the scientific literature to deduce biological explanations. Our methodology revealed a very strong association between gastroesophageal reflux and bisphosphonate-induced ONJ, suggesting acidosis as a key factor. Overgrowth of acidophilic species, particularly Streptococcus mutans, in the oral microbiome in the context of insufficient acid buffering due to impaired salivary glands maintains the low pH that sustains damage to the mucosa. Significant associations between ONJ and adrenal insufficiency, vitamin C deficiency, and Sjögren’s syndrome were found. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency can explain much of the pathology. An inability to maintain vitamin C and other antioxidants in the reduced form leads to vascular oxidative damage and impaired adrenal function. Thus, pathogen-induced acidosis, hypoxia, and insufficient antioxidant defenses together induce ONJ. G6PD deficiency and adrenal insufficiency are underlying factors. Impaired supply of adrenal-derived sulfated sterols such as DHEA sulfate may drive the disease process.