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Disease Markers
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 8915809, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8915809
Research Article

Analysis of Urinary Prostate-Specific Antigen Glycoforms in Samples of Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

1Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan
2Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan
3Department of Urology, National Chen Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Chen Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
4Chemistry Department, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
5Institute of Atomic & Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan

Received 23 October 2015; Revised 22 January 2016; Accepted 3 February 2016

Academic Editor: Alex J. Rai

Copyright © 2016 Chun-Jen Hsiao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Glycans of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer were found to be different from that in benign disease. It is difficult to analyze heterogeneous PSA glycoforms in each individual specimen because of low protein abundance and the limitation of detection sensitivity. We developed a method for prostate cancer diagnosis based on PSA glycoforms. Specific glycoforms were screened in each clinical sample based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with ion accumulation. To look for potential biomarkers, normalized abundance of each glycoform in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and in prostate cancer was evaluated. The PSA glycoform, Hex5HexNAc4NeuAc1dHex1, and monosialylated, sialylated, and unfucosylated glycoforms differed significantly between the prostate cancer and BPH samples. The detection sensitivity (87.5%) and specificity (60%) for prostate cancer identification are higher than those of the serum PSA marker. As low as 100 amol PSA could be detected with the ion accumulation method which has not been reported before. The improved detection specificity can help reduce unnecessary examinations.