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Disease Markers
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 6359871, 11 pages
Research Article

Laboratory and Genetic Biomarkers Associated with Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity in Hemoglobin SC Disease

1Centro de Pesquisas Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rua Waldemar Falcão, 121, Candeal, 40.296-710 Salvador, BA, Brazil
2Universidade Federal da Bahia, Avenida Adhemar de Barros, s/n, Ondina, 40.170-110 Salvador, BA, Brazil
3Ambulatório Pediátrico de Doença Cerebrovascular, Hospital Universitário Professor Edgard Santos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Rua Augusto Viana, s/n, Canela, 40110-060 Salvador, BA, Brazil
4Serviço de Pediatria, Hospital Universitário Professor Edgard Santos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Rua Augusto Viana, sn°, Canela, 40110-060 Salvador, BA, Brazil
5Universidade Salvador, Laureate International Universities, Av. Luís Viana, 3146, Imbuí, 41720-200 Salvador, BA, Brazil

Correspondence should be addressed to Marilda Souza Goncalves

Received 8 January 2017; Revised 15 April 2017; Accepted 31 May 2017; Published 16 July 2017

Academic Editor: Dennis W. T. Nilsen

Copyright © 2017 Rayra Pereira Santiago et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Reference values for cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in hemoglobin SC disease (HbSC) have not been established. We aimed to investigate associations between laboratory and genetic biomarkers associated with CBFV in HbSC children. Sixty-eight HbSC children were included; CBFV was analyzed by transcranial Doppler, and the time-averaged maximum mean velocity (TAMMV) was estimated. Hematological, biochemical, immunological, and genetic analyses were performed. TAMMV was negatively correlated with red blood cell count (RBC) count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and direct bilirubin (DB), yet positively correlated with monocytes and ferritin. We found that children with TAMMV ≥ 128 cm/s had decreased red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and nitric oxide metabolite (NOx) concentration. Children with TAMMV ≥ 143.50 cm/s had decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, as well as increased ferritin levels. Decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, RDW, and NOx and increased ferritin were detected in children with TAMMV ≥ 125.75 cm/s. The CAR haplotype was associated with higher TAMMV. In association analyses, RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, RDW, monocyte, DB, NOx, and ferritin, as well as the CAR haplotype, were found to be associated with higher TAMMV in HbSC children. Multivariate analysis suggested that high TAMMV was independently associated with hematocrit, RDW, and NOx. Additional studies are warranted to validate the establishment of a cutoff value of 125.75 cm/s associated with elevated TAMMV in HbSC children.