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Disease Markers
Volume 2017, Article ID 7062517, 10 pages
Research Article

Differential Site-Based Expression of Pentose Phosphate Pathway-Related Proteins among Breast Cancer Metastases

1Department of Pathology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 211 Eonju-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06273, Republic of Korea
2Department of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea

Correspondence should be addressed to Ja Seung Koo; ca.shuy@6791sjk

Received 11 November 2016; Revised 22 December 2016; Accepted 15 January 2017; Published 2 February 2017

Academic Editor: Szilárd Nemes

Copyright © 2017 Yoon Jin Cha et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. We aimed to investigate the expression of pentose phosphate pathway- (PPP-) related proteins in metastatic breast cancer and its relationship with clinicopathologic factors. Methods. Tissue samples from 126 metastatic breast cancers were included in a tissue microarray. Expression of PPP-related proteins [glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconolactonase (6PGL), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (NRF2)] was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results. G6PDH () and cytoplasmic NRF2 () showed the highest expression in brain metastases. Human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2) positivity was associated with G6PDH () and cytoplasmic NRF2 () positivity. A high Ki-67 labeling index (LI) was correlated with nuclear NRF2 positivity (), and HER-2-positive luminal B type was associated with G6PDH positivity (). On multivariate Cox analysis, independent risk factors of short overall survival were 6PGL positivity in bone metastasis (HR 4.180, 95% CI 1.160–15.06, ) and low Ki-67 LI in lung metastasis (HR 11.853, 95% CI 1.841–76.30, ). Conclusion. Differential expression of PPP-related proteins correlated with different prognoses and metastatic sites, with the highest expression in brain metastases, and could be a potential therapeutic target.