Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Disease Markers
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 2358451, 8 pages
Research Article

S100B, Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid, and Procalcitonin Serum Levels in Remitters to Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Pilot Study

1Department of Psychiatry, Social Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
2Center for Systems Neuroscience, Hannover, Germany
3Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Hannah Maier

Received 21 August 2017; Accepted 29 November 2017; Published 10 January 2018

Academic Editor: Hubertus Himmerich

Copyright © 2018 Hannah Maier et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatment options for refractory depressed patients. To date, there are only a few predictors of response. Aim. The aim was to identify predictive biomarkers of remission to ECT on a molecular level. Methods. 11 patients suffering from a major depressive episode—according to the Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)—underwent 10 ECT sessions. Blood samples were taken, and the depression severity was assessed before, one hour and 24 hours after sessions 1, 4, 7, and 10 using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). A MADRS total score < 12 was interpreted as remission. Results. Patients remitting under ECT had significantly higher homocysteine (), S100B (), and procalcitonin (PCT) () serum levels. On the contrary, serum levels of vitamin B12 () and folic acid () were significantly lower in remitters compared to those in nonremitters. Levels remained unchanged throughout the whole ECT course. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that lower levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid associated with higher levels of homocysteine, S100B, and PCT point to a subgroup of depressed patients sensitive to ECT. Due to the limited sample size, further studies are required to replicate our findings.