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Research Article

Amino Acid-Based Metabolic Panel Provides Robust Prognostic Value Additive to B-Natriuretic Peptide and Traditional Risk Factors in Heart Failure

Table 3

Univariate and multivariable analysis for the HOP score and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) for discriminating patients at heart failure stage C from normal controls (initiation cohort).

UnivariateMultivariable
Odds ratio (95% CI) valueOdds ratio (95% CI) value

HOP score1.53 (1.42~1.66)<0.0011.64 (1.45~1.86)<0.001
Log (BNP) (×10−2)1.05 (1.04~1.06)<0.0011.06 (1.04~1.08)<0.001

The range of HOP score, value calculated by the combination of histidine, ornithine, and phenylalanine, is from −17.7 to 35.2 (on the basis of logistic regression model). Multivariable analysis adjusting for age, sex, left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes mellitus, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and hypertension.

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