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Disease Markers
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 5285392, 8 pages
Research Article

Apelin and Atrial Fibrillation: The Role in the Arrhythmia Recurrence Prognosis

1Intensive Cardiac Therapy Clinic, Medical University, Lodz, Poland
2Department of Occupational Diseases and Environmental Health, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland

Correspondence should be addressed to Agata Salska

Received 7 August 2017; Revised 10 January 2018; Accepted 5 February 2018; Published 12 March 2018

Academic Editor: Zhongjie Shi

Copyright © 2018 Agata Salska et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Apelin is a novel peptide of wide expression and multiple biological functions including the crucial role in cardiovascular homeostasis. The apelin role in the pathophysiology of heart rhythm disorders is considered, although the reports are scarce so far. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential utility of apelin as a marker of arrhythmia recurrence after direct-current cardioversion (DC). The prospective, observational study included 60 patients (aged 41–86; 30% female) with nonvalvular, persistent atrial fibrillation from the group of 204 consecutive patients scheduled for DC during the 12-month period (from May 2010 to May 2011) in the Cardiology Clinic Medical University of Lodz, Poland. The study group was divided into SCD (successful DC), 45 (75%) patients, and NDC (nonsuccessful DC), 15 (25%) patients. Within the SCD group, the subgroups were distinguished depending on the time sinus rhythm maintenance after DC: up to 7 days (SDC-7), 11 patients; 7 to 30 days (SDC-30), 12 patients; over 90 days (SDC-90), 22 patients. Patients were evaluated during the hospitalization and within the 3-month follow-up period. The apelin level was determined within the plasma samples collected at the admission, using the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Kit for apelin-36. It was found that the median value of initial apelin in the subset of patients from groups NDC + SDC-7 + SDC-30 is significantly higher than from group SDC-90 (); there was no relationship between NDC and SCD overall. Neither of the compared subgroup pairs revealed statistically significant correlation between the proBNP concentration and the DC effectiveness in our population. In conclusion, in our study, proBNP was not a marker of arrhythmia recurrence whereas higher apelin concentration at the admission indicated patients in whom DC was not effective or they had an arrhythmia recurrence within a month-period observation.