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Dermatology Research and Practice
Volume 2017, Article ID 4137597, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4137597
Research Article

Ischaemic Preconditioning Suppresses Necrosis of Adipocutaneous Flaps in a Diabetic Rat Model Regardless of the Manner of Preischaemia Induction

1Unfallkrankenhaus Berlin, Center for Severe Burn Injuries with Plastic Surgery, Berlin, Germany
2Evangelical Elisabeth Clinic, Berlin, Germany
3Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Christian Ottomann; ed.oohay@ed1071otto

Received 7 June 2017; Accepted 18 September 2017; Published 18 October 2017

Academic Editor: Lajos Kemény

Copyright © 2017 Christian Ottomann et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Ischaemic insult in the skin flaps is a major problem in reconstructive surgery particularly in patients with diabetes mellitus. Here, we sought to investigate the effectiveness of ischaemic preconditioning (IP) on diabetic skin flaps in rat animal model. Hundred Wistar rats (90 streptozotocin treated animals and 10 nondiabetic controls) were used. Diabetes mellitus was confirmed by measuring glucose level in blood, HbA1c, and ketonuria. We used blood vessel clamping, hind limb tourniquet, and NO donors (Spermine/NO complex) to induce short-term ischaemia of tissues that will be excised for skin flaps. Animals were followed for 5 days. Flaps were photographed at day 5 and percent of necrosis was determined using planimetry. Significant decrease in percent of necrotic tissue in all groups that received preconditioning was observed. Results show that ischaemic preconditioning suppresses flap necrosis in diabetic rats irrespective of direct or remote tissue IP and irrespective of chemically or physically induced preischaemia. Spermine/NO complex treatment 10 minutes after the flap ischaemia suppressed tissue necrosis. Treatment with NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME reversed effects of IP showing importance of NO for this process. We show that IP is a promising approach for suppression of tissue necrosis in diabetic flaps and potential of NO pathway as therapeutic target in diabetic flaps.