Adenylyl Cyclase (AC) Mediates the Antidepressant-Like Effects of Tropisetron on a Mouse Model of Maternal Separation StressRead the full article
Depression Research and Treatment publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to all aspects of depression
Depression Research and Treatment publishes original research articles, review articles, maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Depressive and Anxiety Symptom Assessment in Adults with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Background. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinopathic disorder commonly affecting women in the reproductive age. These women have a possibility of developing depression and anxiety due to biochemical changes, concerns regarding physical appearance, and social pressure from infertility. Thus, the connection between PCOS, anxiety, and depression has a possible impact on patients’ quality of life. This study is aimed at assessing depression and anxiety symptoms among PCOS patients and their association with different socioeconomic aspects. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess depression and anxiety symptoms on 250 PCOS patients which were selected through consecutive sampling technique. Arabic versions of the HAM-A and HAM-D questionnaires were used alongside a demographic sheet to determine the socioeconomic and fertility status. Results. Prevalence of anxiety symptoms was reported among 100 (40%) of women and was found to be significantly higher in single women with a prevalence of 59 (48%) (, value <0.01). Also, lower-income status and unemployment were associated with a significantly higher prevalence of anxiety 18 (67%) (, value =0.03) and 71 (45%) (, value =0.03) women, respectively. Depressive symptoms were reported among 122 (49%) participants. Conclusion. Single marital status, low income, and unemployment were predictors of anxiety. Tension was noted to be the most common anxiety symptom among participants while depressed mood and psychological anxiety were the most reported depressive symptoms. It is important to note the link between anxiety, PCOS, and depression when deciding treatment plans for affected women.
The Impact of Different Types of Abuse on Depression
Despite a large amount of research on depression and abuse, there is still a controversy on how abuse is measured and on childhood trauma’s effect on the physiological function of adults. Here, we attempt to clarify the relationship between different types of abuse and depression while focusing on childhood abuse. This article, unlike prior research, provides an overview that addresses physical, psychological, and sexual abuse and their psychological impact on the victims. Results show that abuse is a vulnerability factor for a variety of mental and physical health problems and that psychological abuse is strongly associated with depression. More research is needed to understand (a) the role of abuse in the development and maintenance of depression and, in particular, longitudinal studies that also account for the large number of risk and protective factors that influence this relationship and (b) how different types of abuse can influence response to treatment among survivors with depression, in order to provide effective trauma-focused approaches to manage depressive symptoms.
Depressive Symptoms and Quality of Life in a Sample of Italian Women with a Diagnosis of Fibromyalgia: The Role of Attachment Styles
Background. Women with fibromyalgia (FM) commonly suffer from depression, pervasive fatigue, and pain. The attachment style has been hypothesized to be an important factor for understanding the experience of these symptoms. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study is aimed at investigating the effect of attachment styles in women with a diagnosis of FM on depressive symptoms and quality of life. Method. Participants were 453 Italian women with a physician’s diagnosis of FM with a mean age of 47 years (). To assess attachment styles, quality of life, and depressive symptoms, women responded, respectively, to the Relationship Questionnaire, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Results. Our results showed that the incidence of depressive symptoms was elevated, with 59% of women reporting moderate to severe symptoms. Also, the statistical analyses showed that both preoccupied and avoidant/dismissing attachments were related with depression symptoms and low perception of QoL. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates that, when evaluating the impact of FM on the QoL of women, it is important to consider the complexity of the variables that are at play. Insecure attachment styles and depressive symptoms seem to increase the likelihood of the psycho-social-somatic malaise in FM women.
Latent Class Analysis in Depression, Including Clinical and Functional Variables: Evidence of a Complex Depressive Subtype in Primary Care in Chile
Objective. To establish differentiated depressive subtypes using a latent class analysis (LCA), including clinical and functional indicators in a sample of depressed patients consulted in Chilean Primary Health Care. Methods. A LCA was performed on a sample of 297 depressed patients consulted in Chilean PHC. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Outcome Questionnaire -social role, and interpersonal subscales were as instruments. A regression analysis of the different subtypes with sociodemographic and adverse life experiences was performed. Results. In a sample characterized by 87.5% of women, two, three, and four latent class models were obtained. The three-class model likely represents the best clinical implications. In this model, the classes were labeled: “complex depression” (CD) (58% of the sample), “recurrent depression” (RD) (34%), and “single depression episode” (SD) (8%). Members of CD showed a higher probability of history of suicide attempts, interpersonal, and social dysfunction. Psychiatric comorbidities differentiated the RD from SD. According to a multinomial regression model, childhood trauma experiences, recent stressful life experiences, and intimate partner violence events were associated with the CD class (). Limitations. The vast majority of participants were females from Chile and the sample studied was not random. So, the results may not necessarily represent outpatient clinics. Conclusions. This study can provide additional evidence that depression, specifically in female gender, could be better understood as a complex heterogeneous disorder when clinical and functional indicators are studied. Furthermore, adverse life experiences starting in childhood could lead to a differentiated complex depressive subtype.
Depression among Patients with Schizophrenia in Ethiopian Mental Health Hospital: Association with Sociodemographic and Clinical Variables: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Depression is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and affects all individuals throughout their lifetime. Patients with schizophrenia are frequently attacked by depression during their total illness duration. Presence of comorbid depression in schizophrenia makes the patients more deteriorating and disabling course and poor outcome. Aim of the Study. To determine the prevalence of depression and highlight the associated sociodemographic and clinical factors in patients with schizophrenia in a specialized hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Setting. This study was conducted at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June 2018. Depression was measured by Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia on 455 samples of patient with schizophrenia and systematic sampling was used to select the study participants. Oslo Social Support Scale and Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test were used to assess social support and substance use factors, respectively. A bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis model was performed to control the confounding factors. Odds ratio (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was determined to evaluate the strength of association. Results. A total of 445 patients responded to the questionnaire, which yields a response rate of 97.8%. The Magnitude of depression among schizophrenia patients was 24.9%. A multivariable logistic regression analysis model showed that being female [AOR 2.00, 95% CI: 1.25-3.18], divorced/widowed [AOR 2.39, 95% CI: 1.04-5.49], current substance use [AOR 1.95, 95% CI: 1.17-3.25], and poor social support [AOR 2.75, 95% CI: 1.35-5.61] were significantly associated with depression in schizophrenia. Conclusion. The magnitude of depression among schizophrenia was 24.9%. Being female, divorced/widowed, current substance use, and poor social support were associated with depression among patients with schizophrenia. Regular screening and prompt management of depressive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia is of particular importance to reduce the burden of the condition.
Depression among Adolescents of Rural Nepal: A Community-Based Study
This community-based study is aimed at finding out the prevalence of depression, and its correlates among adolescents of rural Nepal. Data were collected among adolescents after multistage stratified proportionate random sampling by using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to assess the depression among adolescent. Chi-square test and logistic regression model were applied. The prevalence of depression was found to be 27%. Adolescents who were not satisfied with their academic performance were 2.4 times more likely to have the risk of depression (, CI: 1.097-5.326). Likewise, tobacco users were almost fourteen times (, CI: 2.090-91.90), who intended to harm themselves were two times (, CI: 1.078-5.005), sleep deprivation were fifteen folds (, CI: 7.376-30.145), often scolded by their parents was almost three times (, CI: 1.195-7.436), and having poor relationship with friends were 2.4 times more likely (, CI: 1.078-5.215) of having depression. Sleep deprivation has a long-term negative impact on health leading depression.