Depression Research and Treatment
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Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Antenatal Depression among Pregnant Women Attending Tertiary Care Hospitals in South India

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Depression Research and Treatment publishes original research articles and review articles related to all aspects of depression

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Depression Research and Treatment maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

 

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Research Article

Determinants of Pregnancy-Related Anxiety among Women Attending Antenatal Checkup at Public Health Institutions in Debre Markos Town, Ethiopia

Background. Pregnancy-related anxiety has been associated with many pregnancy adverse outcomes including preterm birth, low birth weight, postpartum depression, and resulting in long-term sequels on the child’s emotional, cognitive, and behavioral development. This study is aimed at assessing the magnitude of pregnancy-related anxiety and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal checkup at Debre Markos town public health institutions, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 pregnant women at Debre Markos town, Northwest Ethiopia, from February 1st to March 30th, 2021. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data were collected sing a structured, pretested, and interviewer-administered questionnaire. The collected data were entered with Epi-data version 4.6 and then exported to SPSS version 23. Both bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were undertaken to identify significantly associated variables with pregnancy-related anxiety. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) at a value of ≤0.05 was used to claim statistical association. Result. In this study, a total of 408 pregnant women participated, giving a 96.4% response rate. The prevalence of pregnancy-related anxiety was found to be 43.9% (95% CI: 39.5, 49.2). Having no formal education (; 95% CI: 1.32, 8.58), primigravida (; 95% CI: 1.17, 3.24), intimate partner violence (; 95% CI: 1.47, 5.64), and poor social support (; 95% CI: 1.18, 3.56) was significantly associated with pregnancy-related anxiety. Conclusion. In this study, the prevalence of pregnancy-related anxiety was found to be high when compared to other study findings. The regional educational department should give emphasis for gender pedagogies which pay attention to the specific learning needs of girls. In addition, interventions on violence against women and social support for the women may reduce the problem.

Review Article

Virtual versus Face-to-Face Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Depression: Meta-Analytic Test of a Noninferiority Hypothesis and Men’s Mental Health Inequities

Global rates of depression have increased significantly since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. It is unclear how the recent shift of many mental health services to virtual platforms has impacted service users, especially for the male population which are significantly more likely to complete suicide than women. This paper presents the findings of a rapid meta-analytic research synthesis of 17 randomized controlled trials on the relative efficacy of virtual versus traditional face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in mitigating symptoms of depression. Participants’ aggregated depression scores were compared upon completion of the therapy (posttest) and longest follow-up measurement. The results supported the noninferiority hypothesis indicating that the two modes of CBT delivery are equally efficacious, but the results proved to be significantly heterogeneous indicating the presence of moderating effects. Indirect suggestive evidence was found to support moderation by gender; that is, depressed males may benefit more from virtual CBT. Perhaps, this field’s most telling descriptive finding was that boys/men have been grossly underrepresented in its trials. Future trials ought to oversample those who have been at this field’s margins to advance the next generation of knowledge, allowing us to best serve people of all genders, those who live in poverty, Indigenous, Black, and other Peoples of Colour, as well as any others at risk of being marginalized or oppressed in contemporary mental health care systems.

Research Article

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Poststroke Depression among Outpatient Stroke Patients Who Have a Follow-Up at the Outpatient Neurology Clinic of Zewditu Memorial Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Background. Poststroke depression is the most common and burdensome poststroke psychiatric complication. Studies showed discrepancies in reporting frequencies and risk factors for poststroke depression. Updated local data are relevant for efficient strategies of poststroke depression screening and prevention. Objectives. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of poststroke depression among outpatient stroke patients from the outpatient neurology clinic of Zewditu Memorial Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 249 stroke patients. Data was collected through structured questionnaire using interviews and a review of medical charts. PHQ-9 depression questionnaire was used to diagnose poststroke depression. Descriptive analysis was used to see the nature of the characteristics of interests. Bivariate analysis was used to sort out variables at values less than 0.05 for multivariate logistic regression. Significance level was obtained using an odds ratio with 95% CI and value < 0.05. Results. Point prevalence for poststroke depression was 27.5 percent. Female gender, unemployment, low social support level, diabetes mellitus, and poststroke period under 2 years were statistically significant and independent predictors for poststroke depression. Conclusions. The point prevalence estimate of poststroke depression was comparable with other studies. Low social support levels increased the odds for poststroke depression by more than eight folds. It appeared that external factors are more important in the pathogenesis of poststroke depression in the African population. Detection and prevention programs should consider disparities of poststroke depression incidence and risk factors.

Research Article

Effectiveness of Positive Psychotherapy on Depression and Alexithymia in Women Applying for a Divorce

Background. The new therapeutic approach of positive psychotherapy has successfully treated severe mental disorders such as depression and mood disorders. However, existing research has not sufficiently measured the usefulness of this treatment in reducing depression and alexithymia. Objectives. This study thus examined the effectiveness of positive psychotherapy in reducing these two conditions in a specific population: Iranian women applying for the divorce. Methods. A total of 40 participants aged 20-40 with a high score in the Beck Depression Inventory and Toronto Alexithymia Questionnaire were recruited from women referred to a psychology clinic for divorce-related problems. The pretest, posttest, and follow-up were conducted with all participants, who were randomly placed in two groups: the experimental and control groups, which each consisted of 20 people. We provided eight positive psychotherapy sessions for only the experimental group. Results. After MANCOVA was conducted, the results showed that positive psychotherapy significantly decreased alexithymia and depression in the test population.

Research Article

The Association between Late Third-Trimester Oxytocin Level and Early-Onset Postpartum Depression Symptoms among Jordanian Mothers: A Cross-sectional Study

Purpose. Oxytocin has been suggested to play a vital role in modulating maternal behavior and stress-related disorders. However, the relationship between antenatal oxytocin and postpartum depression is not well established. We aim to investigate the association between serum oxytocin level in the late third-trimester and early-onset postpartum depression symptoms. Materials and Methods. A total of 172 healthy pregnant women participated in this cross-sectional descriptive study. The serum oxytocin level was measured between 34 and 37 weeks. A validated Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to assess symptoms of depression four to six weeks postpartum. Participants who scored more than 12 on the EPDS were considered having depressive symptoms. Independent sample -test and Pearson were used to examine differences in depression scores. The level of significance was set at . Results. 30.8% of the participants experienced depressive symptoms. There was no association between EPDS scores and oxytocin level , . The association also did not exist even among women with a lifetime history of depression , . Participants with low education, low income, previous history of depression, positive family history of depression, positive family issues, and absent emotional family support have scored significantly higher on EPDS scores than their counterparts. The strongest association was with previous lifetime history of depression , . Conclusions. Postpartum depression is a major public health problem in Jordan. Late trimester serum oxytocin level has no association with early-onset postpartum depression.

Research Article

Student Burnout and PTSD Symptoms: The Role of Existential Anxiety and Academic Fears on Students during the COVID 19 Pandemic

It is well known that student burnout is a serious mental health problem, caused by chronic stress related to the educational area. However, in the COVID 19 pandemic, young people have to struggle with additional threats that affect their overall functioning and perception of the world. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effects of existential anxiety and academic fears on the relationship between academic burnout and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. The findings confirmed that academic burnout, existential anxiety, and academic fear were significantly associated with higher posttraumatic symptoms. Existential anxiety and academic fear played a mediating role in the association between academic burnout and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. In conclusion, it is considered that student burnout and anxiety indicators are important risk factors for the trauma experienced by students and may increase its symptoms.

Depression Research and Treatment
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Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2021, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.