Antenatal and Postpartum Depression: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors among Adolescents’ in KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaRead the full article
Depression Research and Treatment publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to all aspects of depression
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Emotional Expression Processing and Depressive Symptomatology: Eye-Tracking Reveals Differential Importance of Lower and Middle Facial Areas of Interest
The current study explored the eye-tracking patterns of individuals with nonclinical levels of depressive symptomatology when processing emotional expressions. Fifty-three college undergraduates were asked to label 80 facial expressions of five emotions (anger, fear, happiness, neutral, and sadness) while an eye-tracker measured visit duration. We argue visit duration provides more detailed information for evaluating which features of the face are used more often for processing emotional faces. Our findings indicated individuals with nonclinical levels of depressive symptomatology process emotional expressions very similarly to individuals with little to no depressive symptoms, with one noteworthy exception. In general, individuals in our study visited the “T” region, lower and middle AOIs (Area of Interest), more often than upper and noncore areas, but the distinction between the lower and middle AOIs appears for happiness only when individuals are higher in depressive symptoms.
Epidemiology of Alcohol Use in Late Adolescence in Greece and Comorbidity with Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders
Background. The aim of the current study was to examine the prevalence and associations of hazardous alcohol use with sociodemographic variables and its comorbidity with depression and other common mental disorders in a sample of Greek adolescents between 16 and 18 year old. Methods. We recruited 2431 adolescents attending 25 senior high schools in Greece. We assessed depressive and anxiety disorders using the computerized version of a fully-structured psychiatric interview (the revised Clinical Interview Schedule / CIS-R). Alcohol use was assessed using questions taken from a previous WHO school survey. Results. Approximately one-third of adolescents (overall: 30.7%, boys: 39.2%, girls: 21.9%, ) consumed alcohol on a weekly basis. The experience of excessive consumption, leading to drunkenness at least two or more times in their lifetime, was reported by 15.39% of the adolescents (19.42% for the boys and 11.24% for the girls, ). Frequent alcohol consumption and drunkenness were strongly associated with the presence of depression, all other anxiety disorders except panic disorder, current smoking, and lifetime cannabis use, lower school performance, bad or fair relationship with parents, and increased health services use. Conclusion. Alcohol use is highly prevalent among Greek adolescents. Special attention for the development of more focused preventive strategies should be paid to adolescents suffering from depression or other common mental disorders.
Depression among Adult HIV/AIDS Patients Attending ART Clinics at Aksum Town, Aksum, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Depression is consistently associated with increased risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and poor antiretroviral treatment adherence. Though many factors have been reported as determinant factors of depression, site-specific evidence is needed to identify factors associated with depression among adults on antiretroviral treatment. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March to May 2015 among 411 adults HIV/AIDS patients on ART clinic follow-up. Participants were selected using systematic random sampling techniques. Data were collected using chart review and interviewer- administered techniques. Both bivariable and multivariable logistic regressions were used to compute the statistical test associations by SPSS version-20. Variables with p value < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results. Four hundred eleven patients with a mean age ± Standard Deviation of 36.1±9.2 years and with a total response rate of 97.6% were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of depression was 14.6% (95% CI, 10.90-18.2). Factors independently associated with depression were nonadherence to ART, eating two meals per day or less, having side effect of ART medication, being in the WHO Stage II or above of HIV/AIDS, and living alone with AOR (95% CI) of 3.3 (1.436, 7.759), 2.8 (1.382, 5.794), 4.7 (1.317, 16.514), 2.8 (0.142, 0.786), and 2.4 (1.097, 5.429), respectively. Conclusion. Though the magnitude of depression was found relatively low, it was commonly observed as a mental health problem among adult patients with HIV/AIDS on ART. Programs on counseling and close follow-up of adherence to ART, drug side effects, and nutrition should be strengthened. Health facilities should link adult patients with HIV/AIDS who live alone to governmental and nongovernmental social supporter organizations.
Heterogeneity Matters: Predicting Self-Esteem in Online Interventions Based on Ecological Momentary Assessment Data
Self-esteem is a crucial factor for an individual’s well-being and mental health. Low self-esteem is associated with depression and anxiety. Data about self-esteem is oftentimes collected in Internet-based interventions through Ecological Momentary Assessments and is usually provided on an ordinal scale. We applied models for ordinal outcomes in order to predict the self-esteem of 130 patients based on diary data of an online depression treatment and thereby illustrated a path of how to analyze EMA data in Internet-based interventions. Specifically, we analyzed the relationship between mood, worries, sleep, enjoyed activities, social contact, and the self-esteem of patients. We explored several ordinal models with varying degrees of heterogeneity and estimated them using Bayesian statistics. Thereby, we demonstrated how accounting for patient-heterogeneity influences the prediction performance of self-esteem. Our results show that models that allow for more heterogeneity performed better regarding various performance measures. We also found that higher mood levels and enjoyed activities are associated with higher self-esteem. Sleep, social contact, and worries were significant predictors for only some individuals. Patient-individual parameters enable us to better understand the relationships between the variables on a patient-individual level. The analysis of relationships between self-esteem and other psychological factors on an individual level can therefore lead to valuable information for therapists and practitioners.
Depression and Its Help Seeking Behaviors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Community Survey in Ethiopia
Background. Depression is one of the most common mental illnesses affecting around 322 million individual in the world. Although the prevalence of depression is high and its treatment is effective, little is known about its pooled prevalence and help seeking behaviors in the community settings of Ethiopia. Thus, this study aimed to determine the pooled prevalence of depression and its help seeking behaviors in Ethiopia. Methods. A systematic literature search in the databases of Pub-Med, Cochrane, and Google Scholar was performed. The quality of studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment tool adapted for cross-sectional studies. Heterogeneity test and evidence of publication bias were assessed. Moreover, sensitivity test was also performed. Pooled prevalence of depression and its help seeking behavior were calculated using random effects model. Results. A total 13 studies for depression, 4 studies for help seeking intention, and 5 studies for help seeking behaviour were included in this review. The pooled prevalence of depression and help seeking intention and behaviour was found to be 20.5% (95% CI; 16.5% -24.4%), 42% (95% CI; 23%-60%), and 38% (95% CI; 23%-52%), respectively. There is no significant heterogeneity for depression (I2 = 0%, p =0.620), help seeking intention (I2 = 0%, p =0.996), and behaviour (I2 = 0%, p =0.896). There is no publication bias for depression egger’s test (p =0.689). Conclusion. More than one in every five individuals were experiencing depression. Less than one-third of individuals with depression seek help from modern treatment. Authors suggest community based mental health screening and treatment.
S100B Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Co-Occurring Depressive Symptoms
Depression is a comorbid condition in patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM). S100B, a glia derived protein, is linked to depression and has been suggested as a biomarker for depression outcomes in several populations. However, to date there is no data about S100B levels and depression in patients with T2DM. Objective. We hypothesized that S100B serum levels are increased in patients with T2DM and recently diagnosed, drug-free depressive symptoms, and could be used for the diagnosis of depression in T2DM. Methods. Overall 52 patients (62 ± 12 years, female 66, 7%) with no history of depression deriving from the Diabetes out-patient clinic of our University Hospital underwent a one-to-one interview with a psychiatrist and filled a self-assessment (Zung) questionnaire. Serum S00B levels were compared between 30 (63±12 years, female 66, 7%) diabetic patients without depressive symptoms vs 22 patients (62 ±12 years, female 68, 2%) with T2DM and depressive symptoms. Results. There was no difference in serum levels of S100B between patients with T2DM without depressive symptoms vs diabetic patients suffering from depressive symptoms (2.1 (1.9-10.9) pg/ml vs 2.4 (1.9-14.8) pg/ml, p=0. 637+). Moreover, linear regression analysis did not show any association between lnS100B levels and depressive symptoms (β = 0.084, 95% CI 0.470-0.871, and p=0.552), Zung self-assessment score (β = 0.048, 95% CI -0.024-0.033, and p=0.738), and other patients’ characteristics. Conclusions. In patients with T2DM there is no correlation between S100B serum levels and newly detected mild depressive symptoms. The brain biochemistry pathways of depression in T2DM warrant further investigation in a larger scale population.