A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Depression and Associated Factors among Adult HIV/AIDS-Positive Patients Attending ART Clinics of Ethiopia: 2021Read the full article
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The Effect of Benson Relaxation Technique on Depression, Anxiety, and Stress of Jordanian Patients Diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Study
Depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) are common symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and are highly correlated with poor quality of life. Managing DAS among such patients can improve their quality of life (QoL), empowering them with improved autonomy, self-care, independency, and ability to perform daily activities. This study is aimed at examining the effectiveness of the Benson Relaxation Technique (BRT) on reducing DAS among patients diagnosed with MS in Jordan. This quasiexperimental study of 105 Jordanian patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis tested an intervention group (60 patients) who received BRT and a control group (45 patients) who received normal treatment. Data were collected from January 2021 to April 2021, using the Arabic version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS21). The intervention group was instructed to perform the BRT two times a day for 10 minutes at home for eight weeks at two specific times, with 7-8-hour intervals between each episode. STROBE guidelines were followed in reporting the review. At the baseline comparison, there was no statistical difference between the interventional and control groups with regard to DAS. The levels of DAS between the two groups after three months of the last sessions of the intervention (postintervention) were compared. The results showed that the intervention group had significantly lower levels of DAS compared to the control group. The levels of the DAS were significantly lower for the intervention group postintervention. Adding relaxation techniques to the therapeutic routine is a cost-effective complementary treatment to decrease DAS among MS patients and improve their QoL. Relevance to Practice. This study provides a baseline of data that could facilitate further investigations in the future to improve the quality of services delivered to such patients and thus their QoL and satisfaction.
Prevalence of Antenatal Depression and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at Health Institutions of Faafan Zone, Somali Region, Eastern Ethiopia
Background. Depression is a common global mental health tragedy which affects more than 30 million people of all ages. Antenatal depression is higher among low-income countries where maternal and psychosocial factors act as determinant factors for its occurrence. Aim. This study is aimed at assessing the prevalence of antenatal depression and its associated factors among pregnant women attending health institutions of Faafan zone of Somali regional state, Eastern Ethiopia. Method. An institutional-based cross-sectional study design was conducted among randomly selected 403 pregnant women from January to September 2015. EPDS with 13 cutoff points was used to screen antenatal depression. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors. Result. The study showed that 24.3% of women had antenatal depression. Marital status, educational status, chronic medical illness, previous depression history, and social support were factors associated with antenatal depression. Conclusion. The study revealed that the prevalence of antenatal depression was 24.3%. Ethiopia Federal Ministry of Health and Somali Regional Health Bureau should work very hard to create awareness on the importance of pregnancy planning and social support during pregnancy.
Criterion Validity and Reliability of SF-12 Health Survey Version 2 (SF-12v2) in a Student Population during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study
Objective. The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, led to strict domestic quarantine, social isolation policies, and consequently significant psycho-emotional and lifestyle changes. The individual and societal fear and anxiety cause significant stress affecting health-related quality of life (HRQOL). There is evidence of the psychological and mental health effects of the current pandemic on students, who are known to be a vulnerable population. A decrease in physical activity was reported among students, and it is known to contribute to stress levels, which is strongly associated with HRQOL. This study is aimed at evaluating the validity and reliability of SF-12 Health Survey version 2 (SF-12v2) in the assessment of self-perceived quality of life of Italian students following lifestyle changes due to the outbreak of COVID-19. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with university students attending the faculty of Medicine and Surgery or Health Professions. The Physical Component Summary (PCS12) and the Mental Component Summary (MCS12) of SF-12v2 were compared to the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Internal consistency was examined using Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient. Concurrent validity was evaluated comparing SF-12v2 values to PSS scores, and the Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) was calculated. Cross-cultural validity was investigated through several analyses for correlations between SF-12v2 scores and the gender of participants, University of Italy, body mass index (BMI), and time spent sitting and exercising. Results. The SF-12v2 questionnaire was administered to 583 medical and health professionals’ students in July 2020. Cronbach’s Alpha showed acceptable reliability for PCS12 and MCS12. In line with expectations, PCS12 scores differed by BMI groups, while the MCS12 was associated with PSS score and showed differences between genders, BMI groups, time spent sitting, and time spent exercising. Conclusion. The Italian version of SF-12v2 is a valid and reliable instrument to assess health-related quality of life among medical and health professionals’ students.
Gender Differences in Depression in the General Population of Indonesia: Confounding Effects
Background. Research findings on gender differences in depression are inconsistent. This study investigated gender and depression in the Indonesian population and considered possible confounding effects. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study. Participants completed the following self-report measures: demographic characteristic questions, the Cultural Orientation Scale, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Gender differences in depression were examined using a generalized linear model. Results. After withdrawals, 265 men and 243 women remained. Women and men did not differ in overall scores and four-factor depression symptoms even after adjusting for cultural orientation and demographic confounding factors, except for the depression symptoms “crying,” “cannot get going,” and “people were unfriendly.” Gender differences in depression became significant after adjusting for stereotypical symptom variance. Men reported being lonelier than women. Conclusions. Possible confounding effects on the association between gender and depression are methodological issues, cultural orientation transition, and stereotypical symptoms. Low depression scores found for gender may reflect dimension-counterpart coping strategies.
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Depressive Disorder among Prisoners in Mekelle General Prison Center, Tigray, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study Design
Background. Depression is the most prevalent mental disorder among prisoners and is the second leading cause of disability worldwide. Depression affects more for those who are less educated, female, single, and young prisoners, and worldwide prevalence of depression among prisoners is 10.2% and 14% for male and female prisoners, respectively. However, a study conducted on prevalence of depression and associated factors is scarce in Ethiopia (Tigray) despite there is high magnitude. Methodology. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 414 prisoners in Mekelle General Prison Center. Data were collected from April to May 2019. A structured and standardized data collection tool (PHQ-9) was used. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was carried out by SPSS version 20. Statistical significance was determined at value < 0.05. Result. In this study, 408 prisoners had participated. The prevalence of depression among prisoners was found to be 228 (55.9%; 95% CI: 51.2%, 61%). Being unemployed and student, lifetime substance use, history of child abuse, weight loss in prison, quality of meal in prison, being not happy inside prison, being sentenced for more than six years, and poor and moderate social support were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion. Prevalence of depression among prisoners was found to be high (55.9%). Prisoners who had lifetime substance use, being unemployed and student, history of childhood abuse, weight loss inside prison, being sentenced for more than six years, not happy inside prison, lack of social support, and poor quality of prison meal were more likely to have depression. Thus, giving training to strengthen social support, giving training on how to cope up with prison environment, giving training to scale up a happy life, and improving quality of prison meal as well as mental health service will help to reduce the problem. Conducting interventional study is relevant.
Adenylyl Cyclase (AC) Mediates the Antidepressant-Like Effects of Tropisetron on a Mouse Model of Maternal Separation Stress
The adenylyl cyclase (AC) pathway is involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Finding new antidepressants with high medicinal properties and low side effects is warranted. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the antidepressant-like effect of tropisetron on a maternal separation (MS) model in mice, considering the possible role of AC. NMRI male mice were divided into eleven groups. The control group was treated with saline and MS groups were treated with saline, tropisetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist) at doses of 1, 3, and 5 mg/kg; forskolin (an activator of AC) at doses of 5, 10, and 25 mg/kg; a subeffective dose of forskolin with a subeffective dose of tropisetron; and an effective dose of tropisetron plus an effective dose of NB001 (3 mg/kg) (an AC inhibitor). After treatment, animals were subjected to behavioral tests including the forced swimming test (FST), splash test, and open field test (OFT). We showed that MS caused depressive-like behaviors determined as an increase in the immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST) and decreased grooming time in the splash test. Our results showed that administration of tropisetron, as well as forskolin, mitigated the depressive-like behaviors in MS mice. We found that coadministration of a subeffective dose of tropisetron plus a subeffective dose of forskolin potentiated the antidepressant-like effect of tropisetron. However, coadministration of an effective dose of NB001 with an effective dose of tropisetron did not significantly affect the antidepressant-like effect of tropisetron. We concluded that the antidepressant-like effects of tropisetron on MS mice are partially mediated through the adenylyl cyclase pathway.