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Depression Research and Treatment publishes original research articles and review articles related to all aspects of depression
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Gratitude and Religiosity in Psychiatric Inpatients with Depression
Background. Gratitude and religiousness/spirituality are increasingly recognized resources that have potential influence on psychological states such as depression. However, only few studies have investigated this relationship in psychiatric patients. Objective. The present study examined gratitude in psychiatric inpatients with depression, exploring its relevance, course, and interaction with psychopathological and religious measures. Both general and religious gratitude will be evaluated. Methods. A total of 212 inpatients with depression completed a questionnaire both at the beginning and the end of treatment. Gratitude was measured with a general gratitude scale using the Gratitude Questionnaire and a religion-specific measure assessing gratitude to God as part of the Structure of Religiosity Test. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to evaluate depressive symptoms. General religiosity was assessed using the Centrality of Religiosity Scale. Results. Scores on the general and religious gratitude measures were in the upper range of these scales at baseline and demonstrated a significant increase during the hospital stay. Negative associations were found between general gratitude and depressive symptoms both on admission and at discharge ( and , respectively). General as well as religious gratitude was associated with the centrality of religiosity ( and , respectively). Religiosity accounted for approximately 10% of the variance in general gratitude on admission. Conclusions. Gratitude is highly prevalent in psychiatric patients with depression, and that may serve as a resource for these individuals. Both general and religious gratitude are associated with religiosity, which may also serve as a resource to these patients.
Developing a Depression Care Model for the Hill Tribes: A Family- and Community-Based Participatory Research
A high prevalence of depression has been detected among individuals from the hill tribes in Thailand. However, there are no proper interventions to address this problem. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) design, the study team developed a model of depression care for this population. The study involved 45 people in the model development and 65 people in the model testing, who were patients, family members, village health volunteers (VHVs), community and religious leaders, healthcare personnel, NGOs, and local administrative staff. The model development was divided into three phases: understanding the current situation of depression and care, model development, and evaluation of its effectiveness using psychological and relevant outcomes. Questionnaires, observations, focus groups, and in-depth interviews were used for data collection, and content analysis was employed for qualitative data. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze changes in VHVs’ knowledge and skills before and after training. The resulting model, “SMILE,” consists of stakeholders’ readiness (S), external and internal motivations (M), interpersonal relationship (I), life and community assets (L), and empowerment (E). VHVs underwent training on the model, and after training, their knowledge increased significantly from to (). Moreover, their basic counselling and depression screening skills showed improvement from to (). The developed model can be applied to other hill tribe communities in Northern Thailand to improve depression care.
The Role of Anger Expression in Unmet Expectations and Depressive Symptoms
Background and Objectives. Depression is associated with unmet relational expectations, but little is known about how both partners experience meeting expectations and how this relates to anger expression and depressive symptoms. The aim of study 1 was to explore the role of anger expression in explaining the link between relational expectations and depression using the actor-partner interdependence mediation model. Additionally, social expectations beyond romantic relationships are associated with societal demands. Study 2 is aimed at investigating the role of anger expression in the relationship between internalized social demands (i.e., outer self-awareness) and depressive symptoms. Design and Methods. Online self-report data were collected from romantic partners (97 dyads) in study 1 and individuals in study 2. Results. In study 1, unmet expectations were associated with both actor and partner effects on depressive symptoms and anger expression. In particular, inwardly directed anger was linked to depressive symptoms in the case of the individual experiencing unmet expectations, whereas outwardly directed anger predicted such symptoms in the case of the partner’s unmet expectations. In study 2, there was a positive association between outer self-awareness and directing anger inwards and outwards, which was linked to higher depressive symptoms. Furthermore, while directing anger inwards seemed to be a universal mechanism underlying the association, the interpersonal mechanism (i.e., directing anger outwards) was found to be dependent on gender.
The Role of Social Support and Socioeconomic Factors in the Prediction of Depression among First-Year Undergraduate Students
Aim. This study was devoted to determining the role of social support and socioeconomic factors in predicting students’ depression. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, all first-year undergraduate students in the Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Iran, during the 2019-2020 academic year were included via the census method. Data collection tools include a researcher-made checklist about demographic and socioeconomic status, a standard questionnaire of perceived social support, and Beck’s depression questionnaire. Smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD) linear regression was used to model the role of social support and socioeconomic factors in predicting depression. Results. Out of the 220 first-year undergraduate students, 174 (79.1%) were female, and 176 (80.0%) were single. The of depression score among the first-year undergraduate students was , and the of social support score was . The mean score of depression was significantly higher in female students than in males (11.09 versus 8.59, ) but was not statistically significant in different categories of age (), marital status (), ethnicity (), parents’ education, and the other demographic variables. Pearson’s correlation showed an inverse and significant correlation between depression and social support (, ). The mean score of depression was at the highest level for students of public health and environmental health majors and was the lowest for students of laboratory sciences, which was statistically significant (). After adjusting the other variables, SCAD regression showed that social support plays a key role in depression prediction, and increasing social support leads to a decrease in depression score. Conclusion. Considering the existence of an inverse and significant correlation between depression and social support, any intervention to promote social support for first-year undergraduate students may decrease depression.
Depression and Associated Factors among People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Attending Antiretroviral Therapy in Public Health Facilities, Hosanna Town, Southern Ethiopia
Background. Among those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, depression is one of the most prevalent mental health issues. Despite its high incidence, depression goes undiagnosed and untreated in the majority of HIV/AIDS patients, which has a negative impact on how well they adhere to their antiretroviral regimen. Objective. To assess the magnitude of depression and associated factors among people attending antiretroviral therapy in public health facilities of Hosanna town, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2019. Methods. Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted at public health facilities of Hosanna town from June 6 to July 6, 2019, among people living with HIV/AIDS aged 18 years and older who were on ART. A systematic sampling technique was used to select 392 participants. Data were collected using a pretested and standardized structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Variables having a value less than 0.2 in bivariate analysis were entered into the multiple logistic regression model. Odds ratio with 95% CI was computed, and variables with value < 0.05 were considered as statistically significantly associated with depression. Result. The prevalence of depression among HIV patients was 37.8%. Being female (, 95% CI (1.21, 3.84)), not disclosing their HIV status (, 95% CI (1.57, 4.89)), rural dwellers (, 95% CI (1.58, 4.57)), poor ART adherence (, 95% CI (1.10, 3.24)), having HIV-perceived stigma (, 95% CI (1.01, 2.88)), and poor social support (, 95% CI (1.11, 3.09)) were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion. The magnitude of depression was high among PLWHIVs. Being female, rural dwellers, not disclosing HIV status, poor ART adherence, HIV-perceived stigma, and poor social support were significantly associated with depression. Enhancing adherence, counseling, and linking those patients who had poor social support to the concerned relatives for care and support is recommended. Providing health education both at the facility level and at the community level may reduce stigma and subsequently depression. Encouraging disclosing HIV status may help to prevent depression.
Prevalence of Depression and Its Associated Factors among Prisoners in North Wollo Zone, Northeastern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Depression is a psychiatric disorder that is characterized by persistent sadness and a lack of interest or pleasure in previously rewarding and enjoyable activities. It is one of the leading mental disorders among prisoners worldwide. However, little attention is given to this condition, especially in developing countries. Hence, this study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of depression and its associated factors among prisoners in North Wollo Zone Correctional Institutions, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 407 prisoners from November 20 to December 20, 2020. A simple random sampling technique was employed to select the study participants, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was utilized to measure the prevalence of depression among prisoners. Data analyses were done using SPSS version 20 software program. Descriptive and inferential statistics including bivariate and multivariable regression analyses were run to assess the association between depression and the independent variables, and a value of less than 0.05 was taken to declare statistically significant values. Results. A total of 407 prisoners participated in the study, making the response rate 96.9%. The mean age of the participants was . Forty-one percent of them were between the ages of 18 and 27 years. In this study, the prevalence of depression was 55.5%. Age 38-47 (; , 12.20), having children (; , 5.42), sentences for 5-10 years and over 10 years (; , 12.30 and ; , 17.17, respectively), having a history of mental illness (; , 11.36), having two or more stressful life events (; , 15.96), and poor social support (; , 19.27) were significantly associated with depression. Conclusions. In this study, more than half of the study participants were found having depression which is relatively higher compared with other previous studies across the globe. Moreover, different variables including the inmate’s age of 38-47 years, having children, a sentence of 5-10 and over 10 years, history of mental illness, having two or more stressful life events, and poor social support were factors significantly associated with depression. Thus, awareness creation for police officers and prison managers about depression screening in prison and treatment programs including psychological counseling and cognitive behavioral therapy for prisoners are recommended.