Depression Research and Treatment / 2011 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

A Review on Assessment and Treatment for Depression in Malaysia

Table 1

Studies on the assessment of depression in Malaysia.

StudyTarget group Ethnicity (%)Gender
(n or %)
MeasureCronbach’s (α)ValidityEFA/CFA

(1) Quek et al. [19]Urological237Malays Chinese (majority) IndianNABDIInternal Rel. (0.56–0.87); test-retest (0.56–0.87)Discriminant; specificity and sensitivityNA

(2) Azah et al. [20]Primary care265Malays (100)Male Female PHQ-9, HDRS, HADSInternal Rel. (0.67); test-retest (0.73)Concurrent; specificity and sensitivityNA

(3) Oei and Mukhtar [21]Students, general community, primary care, and depressed patients1050Malays (100)Male Female ATQ, BDI, DASInternal Rel. (0.90)Concurrent and discriminant; specificity and sensitivityEFA/CFA

(4) Mukhtar and Oei [22]Students, general community, primary care, and depressed patients1050Malays (100)Male Female BDI, ATQ, DASInternal Rel. (0.90)Concurrent and discriminant; specificity and sensitivityEFA/CFA

(5) Ramli et al.Patients with diabetes153Malays (12) Chinese (16) Indian (17)Male (75) Female (78)DASS-21Internal Rel. (0.74–0.79)ConstructCFA

(6) Mukhtar and Oei [23]Students, general community, primary care, and depressed patients 1050Malays (100)Male Female DAS, BDI, ATQInternal Rel. (0.82)Concurrent and discriminant; specificity and sensitivityEFA/CFA

(7) Ramli et al.Patients at Infertility Centre246Malays (230) Chinese (7) Indian (6) Others (3)Male (123) Female (123)DASS-21, HADSInternal Rel. (0.81–0.83); test-retest (0.82–0.84)ConcurrentNA

Note: Key to measure: (ATQ): Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire; (BDI): Beck Depression Inventory; (DAS): Dysfunctional Attitude Scale; (DASS-21): Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21; (HARS): Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale; (HDRS): Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; (PHQ-9): Malay Version of Brief Patient Health Questionnaire; = No. of subjects.

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