Table 2: Possible medications for apathy.

CategoryClassMain background diseaseRepresentative drug name

Antidepressants
SNRIs**
NaSSAs***
DNRIs****
Tetracyclic antidepressants
Tricyclic antidepressants
DepressionFluvoxamine, Paroxetine
Sertraline
Milnacipran
Mirtazapine
Bupropion
Maprotiline
Amoxapine
Nortriptyline

Dopamine stimulantsDopamine agonistsParkinson’s disease, depression (?)Bromocriptine
Pramipexrole
Ropinirole
Amantadine
MAO-B inhibitorSelegiline

Antipsychotic agentsAtypical antipsychotic agentsNegative symptoms (apathy-like symptoms) of schizophreniaClozapine, Risperidone,
Olanzapine, Quetiapine,
Ziprasidone

PsychostimulantsDopaminergic agentsPrimary apathy or apathy syndromeMethylphenidate
Pemoline
Amphetamine
Modafinil

Antidementia agentsCholinesterase inhibitorsAlzheimer’s diseaseDonepezil
Galantamine
Rivastigmine
Metrifonate
Tacrine
Pyrrolidone-type nootropic agentStroke, Alzheimer’s diseaseNefiracetam

Cerebral circulation and metabolism stimulantsErgot alkaloidStrokeNicergoline
Antiplatelet drugsPhosphodiesterase inhibitorCilostazol

*Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: there have been a few reports that SSRIs are not effective for apathy. **Serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors. ***Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants. ****Noradrenaline-dopamine reuptake inhibitors.