Depression Research and Treatment / 2013 / Article / Tab 6

Research Article

Mental Health Outcomes in US Children and Adolescents Born Prematurely or with Low Birthweight

Table 6

Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals for selected mental-health-related conditions among US children aged 2–17 years by perinatal and sociodemographic characteristics: the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children’s Health ( = 84,685).

Sociodemographic characteristics Autism spectrum disorder ADD/ADHDDevelopmental delayLearning disability Intellectual disability/
mental retardation
AOR 95% CIAOR 95% CIAOR 95% CIAOR 95% CIAOR 95% CI

Child born prematurely
 Premature2.261.69–3.031.491.29–1.732.922.44–3.492.131.84–2.462.742.02–3.73
 Not premature11.001.001.001.001.00
Child's birthweight
 Low birthweight1.801.28–2.531.231.04–1.462.642.18–3.201.951.66–2.302.621.84–3.72
Very low birthweight3.161.42–7.041.671.13–2.475.433.93–7.502.882.04–4.064.402.07–9.36
Moderately low birthweight1.531.10–2.111.140.95–1.372.091.67–2.621.761.47–2.112.231.58–3.15
 Normal birthweight11.001.001.001.001.00
Child's age (years)
 2–511.001.001.001.001.00
 6–111.491.05–2.126.595.20–8.350.980.80–1.202.672.17–3.292.381.57–3.59
 12–171.300.93–1.837.495.92–9.480.750.60–0.923.462.82–4.232.971.97–4.48
Child's sex
 Male4.493.48–5.802.432.15–2.751.961.66–2.301.821.61–2.051.701.25–2.31
 Female11.001.001.001.001.00
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white11.001.001.001.001.00
 Hispanic0.850.53–1.360.420.33–0.540.600.44–0.810.650.53–0.800.650.36–1.19
 Non-Hispanic black0.610.41–0.920.640.53–0.770.900.71–1.150.800.67–0.940.870.60–1.26
 Non-Hispanic mixed race1.070.75–1.550.910.74–1.110.890.68–1.170.930.76–1.151.000.61–1.64
 Other0.600.40–0.890.330.25–0.430.600.43–0.830.540.41–0.710.410.23–0.76
Household composition
 Two-parent biological11.001.001.001.001.00
 Two-parent stepfamily1.160.71–1.891.991.65–2.391.110.87–1.421.130.92–1.390.990.64–1.55
 Single mother1.531.15–2.041.791.54–2.081.231.00–1.511.361.17–1.581.190.78–1.83
 Other family type1.210.67–2.181.661.39–1.991.521.12–2.081.401.13–1.741.790.91–3.52
Place of residence
 Metropolitan1.431.13–1.831.020.90–1.161.160.97–1.381.171.02–1.331.170.86–1.58
 Non-metropolitan11.001.001.001.001.00
Highest household/parental education (years)
 <120.440.24–0.810.810.62–1.060.810.58–1.151.351.07–1.721.590.90–2.81
 120.520.38–0.711.170.98–1.380.970.77–1.211.531.28–1.841.300.87–1.96
 13–150.860.63–1.181.110.95–1.301.160.93–1.451.441.22–1.681.320.84–2.06
 16+11.001.001.001.001.00
Household poverty status
 Below 100%1.190.79–1.771.681.38–2.052.001.54–2.612.041.68–2.481.931.16–3.22
 100–199%1.411.01–1.971.271.06–1.521.591.24–2.031.241.04–1.481.370.90–2.07
 200–399%1.501.11–2.011.080.92–1.281.331.06–1.681.271.08–1.501.430.95–2.15
 At or above 400%11.001.001.001.001.00

The effects of prematurity and birthweight were estimated by separate logistic regression models that controlled for age, sex, race/ethnicity, household composition, place of residence, and household education and income levels. 1Reference group.

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