Depression Research and Treatment / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

An Overview of Depression among Transgender Women

Table 1

Factors predicting depression-related variables (by theory).

year of publication
Study locationStudy populationStudy methodPredicted variableCorrelates testedControl variablesOutcomes

Minority stress model

Bazargan and Galvan (2012) [5]Los Angeles220 MTF low-income Latina women(i) Interview
(ii) Cross sectional
Depression(i) Verbal violence   
(ii) Sexual partner violence
(iii) History of sex work
(i) Education   
(ii) Living   arrangement
(iii) Income
(iv) Immigration   status
(v) Years in US
Verbal violence, sex partner violence, and ed. of ≤11th gr. depression.

Bockting et al., (2013) [2]United States629 MTF, 464 FTM, recruited online(i) Online survey
(ii) Cross sectional
Mental health (anxiety and depression)(i) Verbal violence    
(ii) Perceived stigma   
(iii) Gender dysphoria
(iv) Investment in     passing
(v) Outness   
(vi) Family support
(vii) Peer support
(i) Age
(ii) Education   
(iii) Income
(iv) Marital   status
(v) Urban versus rural
Verbal violence, perceived stigma, family support, outness, younger age, and less education worse mental health.

Clements-Nolle et al., (2006) [6]San Francisco392 MTF, 123 FTM, respondent-driven sampling(i) Interview
(ii) Cross sectional
Att. suicide(i) Depression
(ii) Self-esteem
(iii) Substance use   
(iv) Discrimination
(v) Verbal violence
(vi) Physical   violence
(vii) Sexual violence
(i) Race/ethnicity
(ii) Age
(iii) Sexual     orientation
(iv) Education
(v) Recent   employment
(vi) Incarceration
(vii) Know HIV status
Younger age, depression, alcohol and drug treatment, rape, and phys. gender discrimination suicide attempt.

Nuttbrock et al., (2013) [7]New York City230 MTF HIV negative at baseline, recruited throughout community(i) Interview
(ii) 3-year prospective
Depr. symptoms(i) Physical violence   
(ii) Verbal violence
AgeViolence depr. symptoms.

Nuttbrock et al., (2010) [8]New York City571 MTF, recruited throughout community(i) Interview
(ii) Retrospective longitudinal
Major depr., suicidality(i) Verbal violence
(ii) Physical violence   
(iii) Use of hormones
(iv) “Coming out” to friends/family
(i) Episodic or   persistence of   violence
(ii) Life stage   
(iii) Age
(iv) Ethnicity
(i) Victims of violence 2x as likely depr., suicidal
(ii) Persist. psych. abuse depr., suicidality in adol.
(iii) Period. and persist. phys. abuse depr. and suicidality
(iv) Blacks rates of depression

Sánchez and Vilain (2009) [9]Arizona and California53 MTF, recruited at conferencesPaper surveyPsychological distress (somatization, depression, anxiety)Collective self-esteemFear about identity greater psyc. distress

Testa et al., (2012) [10]Virginia350 adult students (179 MTF, 92 FTM), recruited via service providers, support groups, and peer networksSurvey: Paper (English and Spanish), Internet (English)
Cross sectional
(i) Suicidal   ideation,   attempts
(ii) Substance   abuse
(i) Physical violence
(ii) Sexual violence
(i) Phys. violence ↑suicidal ideation attempts
(ii) Sex   violence ↑substance   abuse


Budge et al., (2013) [11]United States 226 MTF, 125 FTM, recruited online(i) Online survey
(ii) Cross sectional
Depression Anxiety(i) Social support
(ii) Facilitative coping
(iii) Avoidant coping
(iv) Transspecific loss
(i) Transition status
(ii) Family history
(iii) Age Income
Family history and SS depression.
Transition status neg. av. coping, av. coping mediates SS and depression.

Nemoto et al., (2011) [12]San Francisco and Oakland573 MTF w/sex work historyInterview Cross sectionalDepression(i) Physical violence
(ii) Verbal violence
(iii) Social support   
(iv) Suicidal ideation
(i) Ethnicity
(ii) Age
(iii) Immigration
(iv) Education
(v) Income
(vi) Sex work
(vii) Housing status
(viii) Sexual       orientation
(ix) SRS
Depression higher need for, less reception of, and dissatisfaction with social support, transphobia, suicidal ideation, lower income and education.

Rotondi et al., (2011) [13]Ontario186 MTF, respondent-driven sampling Online and paper surveyDepression(i) Age
(ii) Relationship   status
(iii) Rural versus   urban
(iv) Income
(v) Employment   
(vi) Education
(vii) Housing
(viii) Childhood     abuse
(ix) Transphobia
(x) Racism
(xi) Health probs.
(xii) Social support
(xiii) Transition
(xiv) Passing
(xv) Living as gender
(i) Unemployment,   childhood abuse, living in rural Ontario→↑risk of depression.
(ii) Support, passing rarely or often (not always) and little community org. involvement risk of depression

Identity control theory

Nuttbrock et al., (2011) [14]New York City571 MTF, recruited throughout community(i) Interview
(ii) Retrospective   longitudinal
Major depr.Gender identity conflict/affirmation (i) Relationship type
(ii) Life stage
Parents, siblings, fellow students c/a depression until middle age, sex partner c/a from young adulthood on.

Nuttbrock et al., (2002) [15]New York City43 MTF sex workers(i) Not specified
(ii) Cross sectional
Depr. symp.(i) Family support
(ii) Friend support
Neg. between depr. symptoms and family/friend support for trans. identity