Authors, year of publication Study location Study population Study method Predicted variable Correlates tested Control variables Outcomes Minority stress model Bazargan and Galvan (2012) [ 5] Los Angeles 220 MTF low-income Latina women (i) Interview (ii) Cross sectional Depression (i) Verbal violence (ii) Sexual partner violence (iii) History of sex work (i) Education (ii) Living arrangement (iii) Income (iv) Immigration status (v) Years in US Verbal violence, sex partner violence, and ed. of ≤11th gr.
Bockting et al., (2013) [ 2] United States 629 MTF, 464 FTM, recruited online (i) Online survey (ii) Cross sectional Mental health (anxiety and depression) (i) Verbal violence (ii) Perceived stigma (iii) Gender dysphoria (iv) Investment in passing (v) Outness (vi) Family support (vii) Peer support (i) Age (ii) Education (iii) Income (iv) Marital status (v) Urban versus rural Verbal violence, perceived stigma, family support, outness, younger age, and less education
worse mental health.
Clements-Nolle et al., (2006) [ 6] San Francisco 392 MTF, 123 FTM, respondent-driven sampling (i) Interview (ii) Cross sectional Att. suicide (i) Depression (ii) Self-esteem (iii) Substance use (iv) Discrimination (v) Verbal violence (vi) Physical violence (vii) Sexual violence (i) Race/ethnicity (ii) Age (iii) Sexual orientation (iv) Education (v) Recent employment (vi) Incarceration (vii) Know HIV status Younger age, depression, alcohol and drug treatment, rape, and phys. gender discrimination
Nuttbrock et al., (2013) [ 7] New York City 230 MTF HIV negative at baseline, recruited throughout community (i) Interview (ii) 3-year prospective Depr. symptoms (i) Physical violence (ii) Verbal violence Age Violence
Nuttbrock et al., (2010) [ 8] New York City 571 MTF, recruited throughout community (i) Interview (ii) Retrospective longitudinal Major depr., suicidality (i) Verbal violence (ii) Physical violence (iii) Use of hormones (iv) “Coming out” to friends/family (i) Episodic or persistence of violence (ii) Life stage (iii) Age (iv) Ethnicity (i) Victims of violence 2x as likely depr., suicidal (ii) Persist. psych. abuse
depr., suicidality in adol.
(iii) Period. and persist. phys. abuse
depr. and suicidality
(iv) Blacks ↓rates of depression
Sánchez and Vilain (2009) [ 9] Arizona and California 53 MTF, recruited at conferences Paper survey Psychological distress (somatization, depression, anxiety) Collective self-esteem Fear about identity
greater psyc. distress
Testa et al., (2012) [ 10] Virginia 350 adult students (179 MTF, 92 FTM), recruited via service providers, support groups, and peer networks Survey: Paper (English and Spanish), Internet (English) Cross sectional (i) Suicidal ideation, attempts (ii) Substance abuse (i) Physical violence (ii) Sexual violence (i) Phys. violence
↑suicidal ideation attempts
(ii) Sex violence ↑substance abuse Coping
Budge et al., (2013) [ 11] United States 226 MTF, 125 FTM, recruited online (i) Online survey (ii) Cross sectional Depression Anxiety (i) Social support (ii) Facilitative coping (iii) Avoidant coping (iv) Transspecific loss (i) Transition status (ii) Family history (iii) Age Income Family history and SS
Transition status neg.
av. coping, av. coping mediates SS and depression.
Nemoto et al., (2011) [ 12] San Francisco and Oakland 573 MTF w/sex work history Interview Cross sectional Depression (i) Physical violence (ii) Verbal violence (iii) Social support (iv) Suicidal ideation (i) Ethnicity (ii) Age (iii) Immigration (iv) Education (v) Income (vi) Sex work (vii) Housing status (viii) Sexual orientation (ix) SRS Depression
higher need for, less reception of, and dissatisfaction with social support, transphobia, suicidal ideation, lower income and education.
Rotondi et al., (2011) [ 13] Ontario 186 MTF, respondent-driven sampling Online and paper survey Depression (i) Age (ii) Relationship status (iii) Rural versus urban (iv) Income (v) Employment (vi) Education (vii) Housing (viii) Childhood abuse (ix) Transphobia (x) Racism (xi) Health probs. (xii) Social support (xiii) Transition (xiv) Passing (xv) Living as gender (i) Unemployment, childhood abuse, living in rural Ontario→↑risk of depression. (ii) Support, passing rarely or often (not always) and little community org. involvement
risk of depression
Identity control theory
Nuttbrock et al., (2011) [ 14] New York City 571 MTF, recruited throughout community (i) Interview (ii) Retrospective longitudinal Major depr. Gender identity conflict/affirmation (i) Relationship type (ii) Life stage Parents, siblings, fellow students c/a
depression until middle age, sex partner c/a
from young adulthood on.
Nuttbrock et al., (2002) [ 15] New York City 43 MTF sex workers (i) Not specified (ii) Cross sectional Depr. symp. (i) Family support (ii) Friend support Neg.
between depr. symptoms and family/friend support for trans. identity