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Depression Research and Treatment
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 842817, 14 pages
Review Article

Ketamine, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, and Depression Specific Yoga and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy in Management of Treatment Resistant Depression: Review and Some Data on Efficacy

1Cooper University Health System and Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, Camden, NJ, USA
2Department of Psychiatry, Cooper University Health System, 401 Haddon Avenue, E&R Building, Camden, NJ 08103, USA

Received 30 June 2015; Revised 29 August 2015; Accepted 10 September 2015

Academic Editor: Martin Alda

Copyright © 2015 Basant Pradhan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Depression affects about 121 million people worldwide and prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in US adults is 6.4%. Treatment resistant depression (TRD) accounts for approximately 12–20% of all depression patients and costs $29–$48 billion annually. Ketamine and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have useful roles in TRD, but their utility in long term is unknown. As per the latest literature, the interventions using Yoga and meditation including the mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) have been useful in treatment of depression and relapse prevention. We present a review of rTMS, ketamine, and MBCT and also report efficacy of a depression specific, innovative, and translational model of Yoga and mindfulness based cognitive therapy (DepS Y-MBCT), developed by the first author. DepS Y-MBCT as an adjunctive treatment successfully ameliorated TRD symptoms in 27/32 patients in an open label pilot trial in TRD patients. Considering the limitations of existing treatment options, including those of ketamine and rTMS when used as the sole modality of treatment, we suggest a “tiered approach for TRD” by combining ketamine and rTMS (alone or along with antidepressants) for rapid remission of acute depression symptoms and to use DepS Y-MBCT for maintaining remission and preventing relapse.