Combination of Perindopril Erbumine and Huangqi-Danshen Decoction Protects Against Chronic Kidney Disease via Sirtuin3/Mitochondrial Dynamics PathwayRead the full article
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine seeks to apply scientific rigor to the study of complementary and alternative medicine, emphasizing on health outcome, while documenting biological mechanisms of action.
Chief Editor, Jian-Li Gao works as research professorship at the Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, China. Her research focuses on hypertension and oncology, as well as evidence-based use of Traditional Chinese Medicine in reducing the side effects of conventional cancer treatments.
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Panax notoginseng Alleviates Sepsis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury by Reducing Inflammation in Rats
Background. Sepsis is defined as a host inflammatory response to infection that can result in end-organ dysfunction. One of the most common consequences of sepsis is acute kidney injury (AKI). Panax notoginseng powder (PNP) has been previously reported to protect against overactive inflammation process. However, the potential effect of PNP on septic AKI is poorly described. The current study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of PNP in septic AKI rats. Methods. A model of septic AKI was established on male SD rats by using the cecal ligation and puncture procedure. PNP was administrated by gavage after the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) procedure, and the mice were sacrificed at 6, 12, and 72 h after induction of sepsis. The serum and kidney samples were collected and assayed for biochemical tests, histopathological staining, inflammation, and apoptosis-related gene/protein expression. In addition, 15 rats in each group were used to calculate the 7-day survival rate. Results. CLP-induced kidney injury was observed by the histopathological score, which markedly was attenuated by PNP treatment. Consistently, PNP intervention significantly alleviated the elevated levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen in CLP-induced sepsis rats. The CLP procedure also triggered proinflammatory cytokine production and increased the expression of various inflammation-related proteins in the kidneys. However, PNP inhibited the renal expression of IL-18, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 to substantially improve inflammatory response. Mechanistically, CLP induced the increase of the NF-κB p65 level in the injured kidneys, while PNP notably inhibited the corresponding protein expression. Conclusion. PNP attenuated kidney inflammation to protect against CLP-induced septic AKI in rats via inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway.
Inhibitory Effects of Mongolian Medicine Yihe-Tang on Continuous Darkness Induced Liver Steatosis in Zebrafish
The constant dark induction (DD) causes lipid degeneration and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in zebrafish, which might be closely related to the imbalance of gut microbiota and require in-depth study. In this study, a total of 144 zebrafish were divided into four groups, including the control group, Yihe-Tang group, constant dark group, and constant dark + Yihe-Tang group, and were treated with constant darkness (except control and Yihe-Tang groups) for 21 days. The bodyweights of zebrafish were recorded after 8 d, 15 d, and 22 d. The sequencing analysis of gut microbiota, detection of liver histopathological changes, and comparison of lipid metabolism-related gene expression levels were performed on the 22nd day of the experiment. The results showed that the Yihe-Tang could inhibit the constant dark-induced increase in zebrafish weight and liver steatosis. As compared to the control group, the dark treatment could alter the composition of gut microbiota in zebrafish, increase the relative abundance of harmful bacteria, and decrease the Cetobacterium and Bacteroides to Firmicutes ratio in the intestines. The abundance of Proteobacteria in the constant dark + Yihe-Tang group was close to that in the control group and that of Fusobacteria and Cetobacterium increased, especially the Cetobacterium, which increased significantly. The constant dark treatment caused an abnormal expression of liver lipid-related genes, inhibited lipid metabolism, and promoted fat accumulation. However, the Yihe-Tang could restore these changes to the level of the control group. This study indicated that Yihe-Tang could restore the constant dark-induced liver lipid degeneration. We hypothesized that Cetobacterium could significantly inhibit steatosis.
Needle-Warming Moxibustion plus Multirehabilitation Training to Improve Quality of Life and Functional Mobility of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis after Medication
Objective. Patients treated with medication for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) often improve but continue to have active diseases. The study aims to investigate whether needle-warming moxibustion (NWM) plus multirehabilitation training can improve quality of life (QoL) and functional mobility of RA patients after medication. Methods. Eighty-four RA patients were selected as study participants, including 42 patients receiving medication (medication group) and 42 patients receiving NWM plus multirehabilitation training (NWM + MRT group). The scores of disease symptoms, pain (visual analogue scale (VAS)), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)), functional mobility (Fugl–Meyer assessment scale (FMAS)), self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), self-rating depression scale (SDS), and QoL (SF-36) were compared before and after treatment. When patients were discharged from the hospital, they were given a questionnaire for treatment satisfaction. Results. After treatment, decreases in the scores of the VAS, PSQI, SAS, and SDS were observed in both cohorts, especially in the NWM + MRT group (). The FMAS scores of upper limbs and lower limbs were increased after treatment, which were higher in the NWM + MRT group in comparison with the medication group (). Of note, patients in the NWM + MRT group scored higher in various dimensions of the SF-36 scale (), showing better QoL. The satisfaction survey showed that the NWM + MRT group had a higher proportion of patients being satisfied and a lower proportion of patients being dissatisfied (). Conclusion. NWM plus multirehabilitation training could significantly attenuate disease symptoms, improve QoL, recover functional mobility, and reduce the risk of anxiety and depression in RA patients.
Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Anti-Swarming Properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Calyx Extracts: In Vitro and In Silico Modelling Approaches
The aim of this study was to investigate the phytochemical composition of dried Roselle calyx (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) using both ethanolic and aqueous extracts. We report the antimicrobial activities against a wide range of bacteria, yeast, and fungi. The antioxidant activities were tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and 2–2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assays. We report also for the first time the effect of the swarming motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Our results showed that the tested two extracts were a rich source of phenols, flavonoids, and tannins with different degrees. Additionally, eleven phytoconstituents were identified by LC/MS technique (Hibiscus acid: 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-feruloylquinic acid, cyanidin 3-o-glucoside, myricetin, quercetin 7-o-rutinoside, quercetin 3-o-glucoside, delphinidin 3-o-sambubioside, and kaempferol 3-o-p-coumaroyl-glucoside). Also, it was shown that the calyx extract can scavenge 86% of the DPPH radical, while the rate of 53% and 23% of inhibition of the DPPH was obtained only at the concentration of 125 and 50 µg/mL, and a small inhibition was made at a concentration of 5 μg/mL. Roselle extracts inhibited the growth of the selected microorganisms at low concentrations, while higher concentrations are needed to completely kill them. However, no activity against CVB-3 was recorded for both extracts. In addition, the obtained extracts reduced the swarming motility of P. aeruginosa at 2.5 mg/ml. The docking simulation showed acceptable binding affinities (up to −9.6 kcal/mol) and interaction with key residues of 1JIJ, 2QZW, and 2UVO. The obtained results highlighted the potential use of Roselle extract as a source of phytoconstituents with promising antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-quorum sensing activities.
Uncovering the Mechanism of the Xingnaojing Injection against Ischemic Stroke Using a Combined Network Pharmacology Approach and Gut Microbiota Analysis
Objective. To explore the brain protection mechanism of Xingnaojing injection (XNJ) against ischemic stroke (IS) by the network pharmacology approach and gut microbiota analysis. Methods. We used network pharmacology analysis to identify the active components of XNJ and its potential targets against IS and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and carried out network analysis, functional annotation, and pathway enrichment analysis. Then, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) mice model was used to verify the molecular mechanism of XNJ. Results. 36 active compounds were identified from XNJ, and the effect of XNJ against IS was related to the VEGF signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, and gap junction. The effect of XNJ against IBD was related to the T cell receptor signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, and gap junction. In vitro experiments showed that XNJ significantly improved the neurological function of tMCAO mice, reduced the size of cerebral infarction, decreased the permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB), downregulated the expressions of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-kappa B in the ischemic site, and upregulated the expressions of occludin and ZO-1 in the colon. High-throughput 16S rDNA gene sequencing showed that XNJ upregulated the levels of Akkermansia and downregulated the levels of Flavobacteriaceae, Deferribacteraceae, and Deferribacteres. XNJ increased the concentrations of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) PA (propionate), VA (valerate), IBA (isobutyrate), and IVA (isovalerate) in the feces of the sham germ-free experiment group (SGFEG) mice. Conclusion. IS causes dysbiosis of some specific bacteria in the gut microbiota. XNJ is an effective treatment for IS, and its mechanism was related to improving intestinal barrier function and regulating intestinal flora and SCFAs. Network pharmacology revealed that XNJ acts through multiple targets and multiple pathways.
Antihypertensive and Vasorelaxant Effects of Citrus aurantifolia Linn. Fruit: Proposed Mechanisms
Background. Citrus aurantifolia Linn. fruit, a natural dietary item, has long been used traditionally to treat hypertension in Pakistan. The current research work aims to explore the effect on blood pressure and its mechanisms. Methods. The aqueous methanol extract of plant fruit was used to evaluate hypotensive/antihypertensive, vasorelaxation, and safety profiles. Moreover, the in vitro inhibitory effect of AMECA on phosphodiesterase was also evaluated. Results. In hypotensive studies, extracts of Citrus aurantifolia fruit exhibited a concentration-dependent reduction in SBP, DBP, MAP, and heart rate. A similar effect has been observed on anesthetized rats, but the effects exerted by the extract were not altered significantly in the presence of L-NAME, atropine, captopril, and propranolol. Moreover, in coronary arteries, the extract significantly potentiated relaxations induced by cGMP- and cAMP-dependent relaxing agonists. When exposed to PDEs, the extract concentration dependently subdued cGMP-hydrolyzing activity of different PDEs with IC50 values of 40–130 μg/mL. Conclusion. It is conceivable that extracts obtained from Citrus aurantifolia fruit produced hypotensive and antihypertensive effects in rats. The extract elicited endothelium-independent vasorelaxation, possibly by acting directly on smooth muscles of the coronary artery and by increasing cGMP and cAMP via nonselective inhibition of vascular PDEs.