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Therapeutic Effect of Xuebijing, a Traditional Chinese Medicine Injection, on Rheumatoid Arthritis
Background. Traditional Chinese medicine considers that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is caused by blood stasis, heat, and toxins. Xuebijing (XBJ), a traditional Chinese medicine compound injection, activates blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis, eliminating pathogenic heat from the blood and degrading toxins. XBJ was approved by the China FDA to treat for many years. This study examined the potential therapeutic effects of XBJ on RA and rat collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Methods. XBJ was cultured with the synovial fluid (SF) of RA patients. XBJ was also injected into CIA rats. Changes in Treg and Th17 cell levels in the peripheral blood (PB), SF, and spleen and changes in Th1/Th2 and cytokine levels in PB were detected using flow cytometry. Four RA patients were treated using XBJ based on Chinese medical theory and Chinese medicine indications. Results. Following culture with XBJ, the proportion of Treg cells () was significantly increased in RA SF, while the Th1/Th2 ratio remained unchanged. After XBJ treatment, CIA in rats was significantly relieved (). The Treg cell proportion was significantly increased in the PB, SF, and spleen in the treated rats, while the number of Th17 cells decreased. The ratio of Th1/Th2 remained unchanged in PB, and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, IFN-γ, and TNF-α decreased (, , , , and , respectively). After XBJ treatment, the disease activity score-28 (DAS28), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) level, Th17 cell number, and Th1/Th2 cell ratio in the four RA patients were significantly decreased, while the Treg cell proportion was increased. Conclusion. XBJ can restore the immune balance to treat RA and CIA. Therefore, XBJ could be a potential therapeutic drug for RA.
Metabolomics of the Protective Effect of Ampelopsis grossedentata and Its Major Active Compound Dihydromyricetin on the Liver of High-Fat Diet Hamster
The flavonoid dihydromyricetin (DMY) is the main component of Ampelopsis grossedentata (Hand-Mazz) W. T. Wang (AG), a daily beverage and folk medicine used in Southern China to treat jaundice hepatitis, cold fever, and sore throat. Recently, DMY and AG were shown to have a beneficial effect on lipid metabolism disorder. However, the mechanisms of how DMY and AG protect the liver during lipid metabolism disorder remain unclear. In this study, we first analyzed the chemical compounds of AG by HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn. Of the 31 compounds detected, 29 were identified based on previous results. Then, the effects of DMY and AG on high-fat diet hamster livers were studied and the metabolite levels and metabolic pathway activity of the liver were explored by 1H NMR metabolomics. Compared to the high-fat diet group, supplementation of AG and DMY attenuated the high-fat-induced increase in body weight, liver lipid deposition, serum triglycerides and total cholesterol levels, and normalized endogenous metabolite concentrations. PCA and PLS-DA score plots demonstrated that while the metabolic profiles of hamsters fed a high-fat diet supplemented with DMY or AG were both far from those of hamsters fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet alone, they were similar to each other. Our data suggest that the underlying mechanism of the protective effect of DMY and AG might be related to an attenuation of the deleterious effect of high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia on multiple metabolic pathways including amino acid metabolism, ketone body metabolism, energy metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and enhanced fatty acid oxidation.
UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS Analysis of Biologically Active Extracts from Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. and Cleome gynandra L. Leaves
This study aimed to determine the total phenolic content, DPPH scavenging, α-glucosidase, and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition of Gynura procumbens and Cleome gynandra extracts obtained with five different ethanolic concentrations. The findings showed that the 100% ethanolic extract of G. procumbens had the highest phenolic content and the lowest IC50 values for DPPH scavenging and NO inhibition activity compared to the properties of the other extracts. For C. gynandra, the 20% and 100% ethanolic extracts had comparably high total phenolic contents, and the latter possessed the lowest IC50 value in the NO inhibition assay. In addition, the 20% ethanolic extract of C. gynandra had the lowest IC50 value in the DPPH scavenging assay. However, none of the extracts from either herb had the ability to inhibit α-glucosidase enzyme. Pearson correlation analysis indicated a strong relationship between the phenolic content and DPPH scavenging activity in both herb extracts. A moderately strong relationship was also observed between the phenolic content and NO inhibition in G. procumbens extracts and not in C. gynandra extracts. The UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS revealed major phenolics from the groups of hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, and flavonoid derivatives from both herbs, which could be the key contributors to their bioactivities. Among the identified metabolites, 24 metabolites were tentatively assigned for the first time from both species of studied herbs. These two herbs could be recommended as prospective natural products with valuable medicinal properties.
Antihyperglycemic Effects and Mode of Actions of Musa paradisiaca Leaf and Fruit Peel Hydroethanolic Extracts in Nicotinamide/Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
The present study aimed to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effects of Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) leaf and fruit peel hydroethanolic extracts and to suggest their probable mode of actions in nicotinamide (NA)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The leaf and fruit peel hydroethanolic extracts were analyzed by GC-MS that indicated the presence of phytol, octadecatrienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, and octadecadienoic acid as major components in the leaf extract and vitamin E, octadecenamide, β-sitosterol, and stigmasterol as major phytochemicals in the fruit peel extract. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg body weight) dissolved in citrate buffer (pH 4.5), 15 minutes after intraperitoneal injection of NA (120 mg/kg body weight). The NA/STZ-induced diabetic rats were, respectively, treated with M. paradisiaca leaf and fruit peel hydroethanolic extracts at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight/day by oral administration for 28 days. The treatment of NA/STZ-induced diabetic rats with leaf and fruit peel extracts significantly improved the impaired oral glucose tolerance and significantly increased the lowered serum insulin and C-peptide levels. The HOMA-IR (as the index of insulin resistance) and QUICKI (as a marker for insulin sensitivity), as well as HOMA-β cell function were significantly alleviated as a result of treatment of diabetic rats with leaf and fruit peel extracts. In association, the elevated serum-free fatty acids, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were significantly decreased. In addition, the suppressed adipose tissue PPARγ, GLUT4, adiponectin, and insulin receptor β-subunit mRNA expressions were upregulated while the elevated adipose tissue resistin expression was downregulated in diabetic rats as a result of treatment with the leaf and peel extract. Based on these results, it can be concluded that M. paradisiaca leaf and fruit peel hydroethanolic extracts have antihyperglycemic effects which may be mediated via their insulinotropic and insulin-sensitizing effects.
Safety and Efficacy Evaluation of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Qingre-Lishi-Yishen Formula) Based on Treatment of Regular Glucocorticoid Combined with Cyclophosphamide Pulse in Children Suffered from Moderately Severe Henoch–Schonlein Purpura Nephritis with Nephrotic Proteinuria
Objective. At present, the most appropriate management of Henoch–Schonlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) with nephrotic-range proteinuria still remains controversial; thus, the purpose of this study is to evaluate safety and efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Qingre-Lishi-Yishen Formula (QLYF), integrated with regular oral glucocorticoid and cyclophosphamide intravenous pulse therapeutic regimen in children suffered from moderately severe HSPN with nephrotic proteinuria. Methods. From 1 January 2012, to 1 January 2016, totally 150 hospitalized children suffered from HSPN with nephrotic proteinuria were included. All were treated with glucocorticoid and cyclophosphamide, and 100 of them were treated with integrative traditional Chinese decoction QLYF. Patients were followed up for 2 years. Rate of adverse event occurrence, short-term clinical effects, long-term clinical effects, and TCM therapeutic evaluation were all compared. Results. Total adverse event rate was lower in the QLYF group (χ2 = 5.357, ); rates of respiratory infection, urinary infection, poor appetite, hepatotoxity, cardiotoxicity, and neutropenia were all decreased in patients who received QLYF (), and no cases of hepatic and renal toxicities related to the herbal medicine were observed in the QLYF group. For short-term clinical efficacy evaluation, lower levels of 24 hour proteinuria () and urine blood cell count () were found in the QLYF group. For long-term efficacy evaluation, better clinical control rate effective rate, lower recurrence rate (), and fewer TCM syndrome score () were found in the QLYF group. Conclusion. Compared with merely using regular oral glucocorticoid plus cyclophosphamide pulse therapeutic regimen, the therapeutic regimen that integrates QLYF with the abovementioned western medicine might be a safe means to decrease the occurrence rate of adverse events and improve short-term and long-term clinical effects in children who suffered from moderately severe HSPN with nephrotic proteinuria.
Optimization of Extraction Conditions of Phytochemical Compounds and Anti-Gout Activity of Euphorbia hirta L. (Ara Tanah) Using Response Surface Methodology and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) Analysis
Gout is a common disease affected most of the people due to the elevation of uric acid in the blood. Flavonoid and phenolic compounds are reported to exert the anti-gout activity of medicinal plants. Hence, this study aimed at optimizing the extraction conditions of phenolic and flavonoid compounds as well as the anti-gout (xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity) in vitro of Euphorbia hirta using response surface methodology (RSM). The plant part used was the whole plant excluding roots. The effects of three independent variables (extraction time, X1; extraction temperature, X2; and solid-to-liquid ratio, X3) on three response variables (total flavonoid content, Y1; total phenolic content, Y2; and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, Y3) were determined using central composite design (CCD) while phytochemical profiling of the extracts was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Quadratic models produced a satisfactory fitting of the experimental data with regard to total flavonoid content (r2 = 0.9407, ), total phenolic content (r2 = 0.9383, ), and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity (r2 = 0.9794, ). The best extraction conditions observed for total flavonoid content, total phenolic content, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity were at a temperature of 79.07°C for 17.42 min with solid-to-liquid ratio of 1 : 20 g/ml. The optimum values for total flavonoid, total phenolic, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity were 67.56 mg RE/g, 155.21 mg GAE/g, and 91.42%, respectively. The main phytochemical compounds in the optimized E. hirta extract are neochlorogenic acid, quercetin-3β-D-glucoside, syringic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, astragalin, afzelin, and quercetin. As conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated the best conditions to obtain higher xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity and phytochemical compounds which can be further used for the development of anti-gout agents.