FTZ Ameliorates Diabetic Cardiomyopathy by Inhibiting Inflammation and Cardiac Fibrosis in the Streptozotocin-Induced ModelRead the full article
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Electroacupuncture and Moxibustion Modulate the BDNF and TrkB Expression in the Colon and Dorsal Root Ganglia of IBS Rats with Visceral Hypersensitivity
Objective. To evaluate the effects of electroacupuncture and moxibustion on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) protein and mRNA expressions in the colon and dorsal root ganglia of IBS rats with visceral hypersensitivity and to explore their underlying therapeutic mechanisms. Method. Forty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal, model, model + mild moxibustion (MM), model + electroacupuncture (EA), and model + pinaverium bromide (PB) groups, with eight rats in each group. Chronic visceral hypersensitive IBS rat models were established by colorectal distension (CRD) with mustard oil clyster. Rats in the MM and EA groups, respectively, received moxibustion and electroacupuncture treatments on the Tianshu (ST25) and Shangjuxu (ST37) acupoints once daily for 7 days, and rats in the PB group received pinaverium bromide by oral gavage once daily for 7 consecutive days. After treatment, rats underwent abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scoring under CRD and colon histopathological examination. Immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) were used to study the protein and mRNA expressions of BDNF and TrkB in the rat colon and dorsal root ganglia. Results. Compared with the normal group, AWR scores and body weight were clearly increased in the model group rats (both ). The body weights were significantly elevated (, ), but the AWR scores were reduced (, ), after electroacupuncture and mild moxibustion treatment. Compared with levels in normal rats, BDNF and TrkB protein and mRNA expressions were significantly elevated in the IBS model rats () but were downregulated after mild moxibustion, electroacupuncture, and Western medicine treatment (). Conclusion. Electroacupuncture and moxibustion improved visceral hypersensitivity of IBS rats possibly by reducing BDNF and TrkB protein and mRNA expressions in the colon and dorsal root ganglia.
Neuroprotective Effect of Danggui Shaoyao San via the Mitophagy-Apoptosis Pathway in a Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a serious neurodegenerative disease. While the main pathological characteristic of AD is widely believed to be the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) in neurons around neurofibrillary plaques, the molecular mechanism of pathological changes is not clear. Traditional Chinese medicine offers many treatments for AD. Among these, Danggui Shaoyao San (DSS) is a classic prescription. In this study, an AD model was established by injecting Aβ 1–42 into the brains of rats, which were then treated with different concentrations of Danggui Shaoyao San (sham operation; model; and Danggui Shaoyao San high-dose, medium-dose, and low-dose intervention groups). The Morris water maze test was used to assess the learning and memory abilities of the animals in each group. Nissl staining was used to detect neurons. Mitophagy was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence colocalization. Apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The expression levels of autophagy- and apoptosis-related proteins were measured by western blot. Compared to the model group, the groups of AD rats administered medium and high doses of Danggui Shaoyao San showed significantly increased learning and memory abilities (), as well as significantly increased autophagosomes in the hippocampus. Moreover, the expression of PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), Parkin, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3-I/LC3-II) was increased, while that of p62 was significantly decreased (). The neuronal apoptosis rate was also significantly decreased, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was significantly increased, and the cleaved caspase-3 protein expression was significantly decreased (). Therefore, Danggui Shaoyao San inhibited neuronal apoptosis in AD rats via a mechanism that may be related to the activation of the PINK1-Parkin-mediated mitophagy signaling pathway.
A Novel Identified Peptide Hormone “Metabolitin” Attenuates Lipid Absorption in the Small Intestine of Diabetic Mice with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease by Regulating Neurotensin and AMPK Signaling Pathway
Aim. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a novel identified peptide hormone “metabolitin” on lipid absorption in the small intestine of mice with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and potential mechanisms. Methods. T2DM was induced in mice by 4–6 weeks of high-fat diets followed by intraperitoneal injection of 35 mg/kg STZ. NAFLD was induced in diabetic mice by a month of high-fat diets. Oral administration of 4 pmol/g or 12 pmol/g metabolitin every two days was performed during one-month high-fat diets. Triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) detection and Oil Red O staining were performed to evaluate lipid absorption. The neurotensin (NT) levels in the intestinal tissues and serum were determined by ELISA. Lipogenesis- and lipolysis-related proteins, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and p-AMPK were examined by Western blot analysis. Results. It was found that glucose tolerance test (GTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT), TG, and TC indicated lower levels in the serum of NAFLD/T2DM mice receiving 4 pmol/g and 12 pmol/g metabolitin compared to the mice receiving normal saline (). No significant difference was noted in the TC level of the feces among mice with different diets (), but compared to NAFLD/T2DM mice with normal saline, the mice administrated with 4 pmol/g and 12 pmol/g metabolitin revealed much higher TG levels in the feces (). The results of Oil Red O staining revealed that the intestinal epithelial cells of NAFLD/T2DM mice receiving 12 pmol/g metabolitin indicated resistance to lipid absorption and the area of staining was smaller than that of NAFLD/T2DM mice with normal saline (). The NAFLD/T2DM mice receiving 4 pmol/g and 12 pmol/g metabolitin showed a higher extent of p-AMPK concomitant with lower levels of NT in the serum and small intestine than the mice with normal saline (). Western blot analysis also suggested that NAFLD/T2DM mice receiving 4 pmol/g and 12 pmol/g metabolitin revealed lower expressions in fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), and sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1 (SREBP1) proteins and higher expressions in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and fatty acid translocase (CD36) proteins than NAFLD/T2DM mice with normal saline (). Conclusion. According to the data we observed, oral administration of metabolitin could attenuate lipid absorption in the small intestine of NAFLD/T2DM mice, which may be a novel therapeutic approach for NAFLD/T2DM.
Application of Jianpi Xiaoai Recipe Combined with Cisplatin and Adriamycin in the Treatment of Endometrial Cancer and Its Effect on Disease Control Rate
Objective. To explore the application of Jianpi Xiaoai recipe combined with cisplatin and Adriamycin in the treatment of endometrial cancer (EC) and its effect on the disease control rate (DCR). Methods. The data of 120 EC patients treated in People’s Hospital of Rizhao from February 2019 to February 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. They were equally split into experimental group and control group according to the order of admission. All patients were treated with neoadjuvant intra-arterial chemotherapy (continuous infusion of the uterine artery for 5 days before surgery, with 20 mg of cisplatin mixed with 2000 mg of normal saline and 10 mg of Adriamycin mixed with 500 ml of normal saline daily), while the experimental group was treated with Jianpi Xiaoai recipe at the same time to compare the short-term efficacy, immune function indexes, incidence of adverse reactions, and HEC-1-B (human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells) cell inhibition rates between the two groups. Results. The DCR and objective remission rate (ORR) in the experimental group were markedly higher compared with the control group ( < 0.05). The immune function indexes after treatment were remarkably better in the experimental group than in the control group ( < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the incidence of adverse reactions in the experimental group was notably lower ( < 0.05), while the HEC-1-B inhibition rates after treatment were obviously higher ( < 0.05). Conclusion. Jianpi Xiaoai recipe combined with cisplatin and Adriamycin can increase the HEC-1-B cell inhibition rate in EC patients, improve their immune function, reduce the possibility of adverse reactions, and enhance the therapeutic effect, which is worthy of clinical application and popularization.
YiQi YangYin Decoction Attenuates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Rats
Background. YiQi YangYin Decoction (YQ) is a modern Chinese formula composed by the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine theory, which consists of nine traditional Chinese medicines and is applied to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with nonalcoholic fatty liver in clinic in China for more than a decade. This study aims to evaluate the antidiabetes and lipid-lowering effect of YQ and explore the possible mechanisms of this action. Methods. T2DM rat models were established and given YQ at three different doses for three weeks. Tissues, including pancreas islet and liver, and blood serum were collected. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (Fins), lipid index, such as total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and hepatic function index such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum were measured. Pancreas islet damage and liver damage were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The glycogen content and lipid accumulation in liver were determined by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and Oil Red O staining. The expression levels of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2), phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-associated p85alpha (PI3K p85α), AKT, and Glucose Transporter 2 (Glut4) in pancreas islet and AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), and peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor-α (PPARα) in liver were determined by western blotting. The relative expressions of ACC1, fatty acid synthase (FAS), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), carnitine palmityl transferase-1 (CPT-1), and SREBP-1 mRNA were detected by qRT-PCR. Results. After administering YiQi for three weeks, the levels of fast blood glucose, fasting insulin, TC, TG, LDL, ALT, AST, and ALP were significantly decreased, while HDL significantly increased compared with the model group. YQ could obviously attenuate pancreatic damage and improve islet α- and ß-cell survival compared with the model group. Furthermore, YQ could attenuate hepatic damage caused by lipid accumulation, decrease the content of lipid, and increase the hepatic glycogen content, compared with the model group. In addition, YQ remarkably elevated the proteins expression of p-PI3K, p-AKT, and GLUT4 in pancreas islet and elevated the proteins expression of p-PI3K, p-AKT, GLUT4, p-AMPK, SREBP1, and PPARα and inhibited the expression of p-ACC1 in liver. Besides, YQ reduced the relative expression of ACC1, FAS, SERBP-1c, and SCD mRNA along with the decreased production of CPT-1 mRNA. Conclusions. YQ could attenuate type 2 diabetes mellitus by improving islet α- and ß-cells via IRS-2/AKT/GLUT4 pathway and nonalcoholic fatty liver by ameliorating lipid accumulation via AMPK/PPARα/SREBP1/ACC1 pathway.
Pain Changes Induced by Acupuncture in Single Body Areas in Fibromyalgia Syndrome: Results from an Open-Label Pragmatic Study
To date, there is considerable evidence of the effectiveness of acupuncture in fibromyalgia syndrome (FM). However, it is not known in which body areas acupuncture is more effective. The objective of this study was to assess the improvements of pain induced by acupuncture in single body areas in patients with FM. In this open-label pragmatic study, FM patients in a state of high disease severity were consecutively enrolled and treated with a course of 8 weekly sessions of manual acupuncture. Patients were assessed with the Self-Administered Pain Scale (SAPS) of the Fibromyalgia Assessment Status at baseline and at the end of eight acupuncture sessions. Acupuncture sessions were all conducted with the same acupuncture formula (LV3, SP6, ST36, LI4, CV6, CV12, Ex-HN-3, and GV20) in each session and in each patient. Ninety-six FM patients completed the course of treatment. All the 16 body areas assessed by SAPS showed improvement in pain. A statistically significant improvement was achieved in 12 of the 16 body areas investigated, with the best results in abdomen and forearms (), while the worst results were registered for neck (), chest (), left buttock (), and right thigh (). The treatment has also shown significant effectiveness in improving fatigue and sleep quality (). Acupuncture has a beneficial effect on pain in all body areas in FM patients with high disease severity, with the greatest effects in the abdominal region and in the forearms, allowing a personalization of the treatment.