Meta-Analysis Based on Clinical RCTs: The Effect of Molecular Epimerism on the Safety of Glycyrrhizic AcidRead the full article
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Berberine Inhibits the Expression of SCT through miR-214-3p Stimulation in Breast Cancer Cells
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the suppressive abilities of berberine (BBR) on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and confirm its underlying mechanisms on miR-214-3p. We first built a panel of 18 miRNAs and 9 lncRNAs that were reported to participate in the mechanism of breast cancer. The RT-qPCR results suggested that BBR illustrated a dosage-dependent pattern in the stimulation to miR-214-3p in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Then, we performed gain-and-lose function tests to validate the role of miR-214-3p contributing to the anticancer effects of BBR. Both BBR and miR-214-3p mimic reduced the cell viability, repressed migration and invasion capacities, increased rates of total apoptotic cells and ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, and increased the percentage of G2/M cells of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells by colony formation and CKK8 assay, scratch wound healing and gelatin-based 3D conformation assay, transwell invasion assay, and cell cycle analysis, respectively. However, miR-214-3p inhibitor counteracted all these effects of BBR. Based on the bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter test, we identified binding sites between SCT and miR-214-3p. We further confirmed that BBR massively and dose-dependently reduced the mRNA expression and protein levels of SCT in both MCF-7 and MDA-231 cells. We testified that both miR-214-3p mimic and BBR could decrease the mRNA expression and protein levels of SCT, while miR-214-3p inhibitor weakened these reductions. In conclusion, BBR suppressed MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by upregulating miR-214-3p and increasing its inhibition to SCT.
Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials of Xueshuantong Injection in Prevention of Deep Venous Thrombosis of Lower Extremity after Orthopedic Surgery
Objective. To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy of Xueshuantong injection (Panax notoginseng saponins) in preventing deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of lower extremity after orthopedic surgery. Methods. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Xueshuantong injection in prevention of lower extremity DVT after orthopedic surgery were retrieved from CNKI, Wanfang database, VIP, PubMed, and Cochrane Library by August 2020. Revman5.2 was used to analyze the results. Results. A total of 20 articles including 2336 patients were included. The results of meta-analysis showed that the incidence of DVT in the experimental group was lower than that in the control group; after operation, the D-dimer (Ddimer), thrombin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT) in the experimental group were significantly improved compared with those in the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant. Conclusion. Xueshuantong injection can effectively prevent the formation of lower extremity DVT after orthopedic surgery and antagonize the postoperative hypercoagulable state of blood, which has high clinical value.
Study on Network Pharmacological Analysis and Preliminary Validation to Understand the Mechanisms of Plantaginis Semen in Treatment of Gouty Nephropathy
Plantaginis Semen (PS) has been used to promote diuresis and clear away dampness. Recent reports have shown that PS can be used to treat gouty nephropathy (GN). However, the action and mechanism of PS have not been well defined in treating GN. The present study aimed to define the molecular mechanisms of PS as a potential therapeutic approach to treat GN. A combination of network pharmacology and validation experiments in GN is used to understand the potential mechanism. Information on pharmaceutically active compounds in PS and gene information related to GN was obtained from public databases. The compound target network and protein-protein interaction network were constructed to study the mechanism of action of PS in the treatment of GN. The mechanism of action of PS in the treatment of GN was analyzed via Gene Ontology (GO) biological process annotation and Kyoto Gene and Genomics Encyclopedia (KEGG) pathway enrichment. Validation experiments were performed to verify the core targets. The GN rat model was prepared by the method of combining yeast and adenine. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the morphology of renal tissue in rats. ELISA was applied to detect TGF-β1, TNF-α, and IL-1β levels in renal tissue. The expressions of TGF-β1, TNF-α, and IL-1β were determined using immunohistochemistry. Through the results of network pharmacology, we obtained 9 active components, 118 predicted targets, and 149 GN targets from the public database. Based on the protein-protein interaction (PPI), 26 hub genes for interaction with PS treating for GN were screened, including MMP9, TNF, IL1β, and IL6. The enrichment analysis results showed that the treatment of GN with PS was mainly involved in the TGF-β1 signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, NF-κB signaling pathway, and PI3K Akt signaling pathway. Validation experiment results showed that PS could reduce the content of urinary protein and UA and deregulate the expression of TGF-β1, TNF-α, and IL-1β in the treatment of GN. The molecular mechanism of PS in the treatment of GN indicated the synergistic features of multicomponent, multitarget, and multipathway of traditional Chinese medicine, which provided an essential scientific basis for further elucidating the mechanism of PS in the treatment of GN.
Evaluating Traditional Chinese Medicine Interventions on Chronic Low Back Pain Using Goal Attainment Scaling
Background. Extensive studies have been conducted to evaluate the pain relief effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) interventions on patients with low back pain, including in China. However, there is a dearth in the literature documenting the diverse goals of TCM interventions, let alone the overall effect of such interventions. In this study, the goal attainment scaling (GAS) method was adopted to evaluate individualised TCM interventions on chronic low back pain. Methods. A pre-post intervention study was conducted on patients with chronic low back pain who received individualised TCM interventions in community health services. The study was undertaken in three community health centres in Hangzhou of China. A total of 165 eligible patients were invited, and 150 participated in the study, including 136 who completed both pre- and postintervention surveys. Each participant was asked to identify three to five intended goals from a pool of 26 outcome indicators and their corresponding expectations of these goals prior to the TCM interventions. Their conditions were rated against the selected indicators on a self-report five-point Likert scale before and after the TCM interventions, respectively. Gaps between the actual conditions and the expected goals were summed up for each participant and converted into a standardised GAS score, with a higher score indicating higher achievements, and 50 indicting patient expectations were met. Linear regression models were established to determine the factors associated with the pre-post GAS changes after adjustment for variations in other variables. Results. On average, an increase of 14.99 (SD = 9.81) in the GAS scores was achieved. This resulted in a mean GAS score of 48.33 (SD = 9.74) after the TCM interventions, falling slightly short (<2) of patient expectations. The multivariate linear regression models revealed that local residents, the retired, and those who perceived lower professional competency of their attending doctors had a smaller increase in the GAS scores after adjustment for variations in other variables. Conclusion. The individualised TCM interventions can help patients with low back pain to achieve their expected goals as measured by the GAS. Further studies are needed to better understand how patients set up their goals and the professional competency requirements to meet patient expectations.
Solid-State Fermentation of Aspergillus niger to Optimize Extraction Process of Isoliquiritigenin from Glycyrrhiza uralensis
We successfully extracted isoliquiritigenin from Glycyrrhiza uralensis via fermentation with Aspergillus niger and ultrasonic-assisted extraction. In brief, we used A. niger fermentation to culture G. uralensis powder, and we optimized some key parameters such as reaction conditions of pH, inoculation concentration of A. niger, fermentation time, and solid-liquid ratio. Based on a single-factor experiment, we utilized the response surface methodology (RSM) approach to optimize this extraction procedure. Using the RSM approach, optimized conditions of pH = 3.694, the solid-liquid ratio = 1 : 2.155, and the inoculation concentration of A. niger = 1466745 were selected. Optimized conditions resulted in an extraction efficiency of 1.525 mg/g. These results showed that the extraction of isoliquiritigenin was most affected by pH and then the time of fermentation and the solid-liquid ratio. Overall, the developed extraction technique yielded 5 times the amount of isoliquiritigenin when compared to traditional methods.
Evidence of TCM Theory in Treating the Same Disease with Different Methods: Treatment of Pneumonia with Ephedra sinica and Scutellariae Radix as an Example
Pneumonia is a serious global health problem and the leading cause of mortality in children. Antibiotics are the main treatment for bacterial pneumonia, but there are serious drug resistance problems. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used to treat diseases for thousands of years and has a unique theory. This article takes the treatment of pneumonia with Ephedra sinica as a representative hot medicine and Scutellariae Radix as a representative cold medicine as an example. We explore and explain the theory of treating the same disease with different TCM treatments. Using transcriptomics and network pharmacology methods, GO, KEGG enrichment, and PPI network construction were carried out, demonstrating that Ephedra sinica plays a therapeutic role through the NF-κB and apoptosis signaling pathways targeting PLAU, CD40LG, BLC2L1, CASP7, and CXCL8. The targets of Scutellariae Radix through the IL-17 signaling pathway are MMP9, CXCL8, and MAPK14. Molecular docking technology was also used to verify the results. In short, our results provide evidence for the theory of treating the same disease with different treatments, and we also discuss future directions for traditional Chinese medicine.