Progress in Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Periprosthetic Joint InfectionRead the full article
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The Effectiveness of Acupuncture for Dysphagia after Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Objectives. This study reviewed and evaluated existing evidence of the efficacy of acupuncture as a clinical treatment for dysphagia after stroke. Methods. Five English and four Chinese databases were searched from inception to March 2020. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) incorporating acupuncture or acupuncture combined with other interventions for the treatment of dysphagia after stroke were enrolled. All data were independently assessed and extracted by two authors. The bias risk assessment recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration's tool was used to assess the quality of the selected studies. This meta-analysis was conducted by using RevMan 5.3. Pooled analyses were calculated by the mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was assessed by the I2 test. Results. Thirty-five studies involving 3024 patients were analyzed. The meta-analysis showed that the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture combined with other interventions was better than that of the control group for the standardized swallowing assessment (SSA) score (MD = −3.78, 95% CI: −4.64 to −2.91, ), Ichiro Fujishima rating scale (IFRS) score (MD = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.16 to 2.20, ), videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) score (MD = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.77 to 2.74, ), and water swallowing test (WST) score (MD = −1.21, 95% CI: −1.85 to −0.57, ). In studies reporting adverse effects, no serious outcome from an adverse event was confirmed. Conclusion. This systematic review indicated that acupuncture could be an effective therapy for treating dysphagia after stroke although stricter evaluation standards and rigorously designed RCTs are needed.
Effects of 830 nm Light-Emitting Diode Therapy on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness
Objectives. Our study investigated the effects of 830 nm light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) for postexercise delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Methods. In this randomized control study, healthy participants were randomized into LEDT and placebo groups. LEDT (output frequency = 10 Hz; wavelength = 830 nm; total output power = 210 mW; and dose = 315 J/cm2) was applied to six sites in the damaged quadriceps for 10 min. The placebo group received sham LEDT with no energy output. The nondominant leg was chosen for DOMS induction, using an eccentric exercise. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores for muscle soreness, pressure pain threshold (PPT), thigh circumference, joint range of motion, and muscle strength were assessed before and immediately after exercise and at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h postexercise. Results. Forty participants were divided into the LEDT group (n = 20) and the placebo group (n = 20). Compared with the placebo group, the LEDT group exhibited significant increases in PPT values at 48, 72, and 96 h postexercise (). The joint range of motion was significantly different between the LEDT and placebo groups at 72 and 96 h postexercise (). No significant intergroup differences were noted in thigh circumference and muscle strength (). Conclusion. The application of 830 nm LEDT on postexercise DOMS pain exerted an analgesic effect but did not affect the muscle repair process. Future studies should elucidate the beneficial effects of 830 nm LEDT on muscle recovery or performance.
Danggui Buxue Decoction Ameliorates Inflammatory Bowel Disease by Improving Inflammation and Rebuilding Intestinal Mucosal Barrier
Objective. This study aimed to determine whether Danggui Buxue decoction (DGBX) can improve inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by regulating immunity and promoting intestinal mucosal repair. Method. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was used to induce the IBD model. Drugs (DGBX or saline) were administered to mice, which were randomly divided into three groups (control, model, and experimental groups). Hematoxylin and eosin staining of intestinal tissues was conducted to observe for morphological changes. Changes in cytokines and immune cells in the intestinal tissues were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry. Immunofluorescence techniques were used to assess the status of the intestinal mucosal repair. Results. This study found that treatment with DGBX can effectively improve the inflammatory state and pathological structure of the IBD model. DGBX not only can significantly change the composition of intestinal mucosal immune cells and promote the regression of inflammation but also significantly increase the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and promote the rapid repair of intestinal mucosal barrier injury compared with the model group (). Conclusion. Taking these results, DGBX shows promising protective effects on IBD by regulating immunity and promoting intestinal mucosal repair.
Effect of Micronization on Panax notoginseng: In Vitro Dissolution and In Vivo Bioavailability Evaluations
Panax notoginseng (PN) has become the most widely used dietary supplement and herbal in Asian countries. The effect of micronization on PN is not entirely clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of particle size of Panax notoginseng powder (PNP) and the potential to improve the bioavailability. The results showed that particle size reduction significantly changed the Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) in vitro dissolution and in vivo pharmacokinetics. The size of the Panax notoginseng powder (PNP) ranges from 60 to 214 μm. The surface morphology and thermal properties of PNP were extensively characterized, and these changes in physicochemical properties of PNP provide a better understanding of the in vitro and in vivo release behaviors of PNS. The in vitro studies demonstrated that the dissolution of PNS and particle size were nonlinear (dose- and size-dependent). The pharmacokinetics parameters of PNP in rats were determined by UHPLC-MS/MS. Powder 4 (90.38 ± 8.28 μm) showed significantly higher AUC0-T values in plasma . In addition, we also investigated the influence of the hydrothermal treatment of PNP. The results showed that the PNS in vitro release and in vivo bioavailability of PNP pretreatment at 40°C were the highest. This suggests that PNP with a particle size of around 90 μm and heat pretreatment at 40°C would be beneficial. These results provided an experimental basis, and it was beneficial to choose an appropriate particle size and hydrothermal temperature when PNP was used in clinical treatment.
Protective Effect of Capparis spinosa Extract against Potassium Bromate Induced Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity in Mice
Despite the commercial value of potassium bromate (KBrO3), it has been linked to many diseases including cancer. Capparis spinosa possesses exceptional ethnobotanical, pharmaceutical, and economic prominence by virtue of its bioactive components. The present study was designed to explore the protective role and antioxidant potential of ethanolic leaves extract of C. spinosa against the oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and apoptosis induced by KBrO3 in an experimental animal model. The results of the study revealed remarkable diminution in the levels of oxidative stress in all the treatment groups. C. spinosa extract attenuated the toxic effects of KBrO3 significantly ( < 0.05) in a time- and dose-dependent manner by restoring the normal levels of ROS and antioxidative enzymes in serum and liver tissues. The extract also abolished the oxidative DNA damage as it was evident in decreased frequency of micronuclei. A marked increase in viable cells was observed in annexin-V apoptosis assay. In conclusion, the findings of the present study demonstrate that ethanolic leaves extract of C. spinosa has considerable protective effects against KBrO3-induced toxicity in experimental mice which is attributed to its antioxidant activity. Therefore, leaves of C. spinosa could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant and bioactive compounds.
Platelet-Rich Plasma Ameliorates Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Ankle Osteoarthritis in the Rat Model via Suppression of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress
Until now, there is no treatment that cause complete cure of the chronic inflammatory and degenerative disease, osteoarthritis (OA). Moreover, the underlying mechanisms of OA development and progress are not fully elucidated, and the present pharmacological treatment alternatives are restricted and associated with adverse side effects. Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the remedy of OA in the rat model in terms of inflammation, ankle histopathological alterations, and oxidative stress. OA was induced in male Wistar rats by injection of MIA (2 mg)/50 µL isotonic saline in the right ankle joint for two successive days in each rat. After the 2nd MIA injection, the osteoarthritic rats were allocated into two groups such as the MIA group (group 2) and MIA + PRP group (group 3). The MIA + PRP group was treated with PRP (50 µL) by injection into the ankle joint of the right hind limb of each rat at days 14, 21, and 28 after the 2nd injection of MIA. The same equivalent volume of saline, as a substitute of PRP, was injected into the ankle joint of each rat of the normal control group (group 1) and MIA group (group 2) at the same tested periods. Swelling of joint, bodyweight, total leucocytes count (TLC), and morphological as well as histological changes of ankle joints were evaluated. Serum lipid peroxides (LPO), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels were examined as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-17 (IL-17), and interleukin-4 (IL-4) were investigated by ELISA as biomarkers of inflammation. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out to investigate the soft tissues in joints. The obtained results revealed that PRP reduced LPO and increased GSH and GST levels in osteoarthritic rats. Also, PRP significantly diminished serum TNF-α and IL-17 levels, while it increased IL-4 serum levels in rats with MIA-induced OA. Morphological observations, histological analysis, and MRI revealed a gradual diminishing in joint inflammation and destruction of cartilage in PRP-injected osteoarthritic rats. Based on these results, it can be suggested that PRP has antiarthritic potential in MIA-induced OA, which may be mediated via suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress.