Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 475-479
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/neh133
Review

Tradition and Perspectives of Arab Herbal Medicine: A Review

1The Galilee Society R&D Center (Affiliated with Haifa University), PO Box 437, Shefa-Amr 20200, Israel
2Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, Arab American University, PO Box 240, Jenin, Palestine

Received 29 August 2005; Accepted 26 September 2005

Copyright © 2005 Bashar Saad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Citations to this Article [97 citations]

The following is the list of published articles that have cited the current article.

  • Hassan Azaizeh, Bashar Saad, Khalid Khalil, and Omar Said, “The state of the art of traditional Arab herbal medicine in the eastern region of the Mediterranean: A review,” Evidence-Based Complementary And Alternative Medicine, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 229–235, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hassan Azaizeh, Bashar Saad, Khalid Khalil, and Omar Said, “The state of the art of traditional Arab herbal medicine in the Eastern region of the Mediterranean: A review,” Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 229–235, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • B Saad, S Dakwar, O Said, G Abu-Hijleh, F Al Battah, A Kmeel, and H Aziazeh, “Evaluation of medicinal plant haepatotoxicity in co-cultures of hepatocytes and monocytes,” Evidence-Based Complementary And Alternative Medicine, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 93–98, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Raman Chawla, Rajesh Arora, Shikha Singh, R. K. Sagar, Rakesh Kumar Sharma, R. Kumar, A. Sharma, R. P. Tripathi, S. C. Puri, H. A. Khan, A. S. Shawl, P. Sultan, Tej Krishan, and G. N. Qazi, “Podophyllum hexandrum offers radioprotection by modulating free radical flux: Role of aryl-tetralin lignans,” Evidence-Based Complementary And Alternative Medicine, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 503–511, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Bashar Saad, Hassan Azaizeh, Ghassan Abu-Hijleh, and Omar Said, “Safety of traditional Arab herbal medicine,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 433–439, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mai Furukawa, Noriko N. Miura, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Masuro Motoi, and Naohito Ohno, “Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al. (Agarico-mycetideae) on murine diabetic model C57BL/Ksj-db/db,” International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 115–128, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Muhammad Ali Dabbagh, and Zahra Fouladi, “In vitro anti-Candida activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 351–353, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • S. K. El-Desouky, Ki Hun Kim, Shi Young Ryu, Ahmad Farouk Eweas, Amira M. Gamal-Eldeen, and Young-Kyoon Kim, “A new pyrrole alkaloid isolated fromArum palaestinum Boiss. and its biological activities,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 927–931, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Firouz Matloubi Moghaddam, Mahdi Moridi Farimani, Sabah Salahvarzi, and Gholamreza Amin, “Chemical constituents of dichloromethane extract of cultivated Satureja khuzistanica,” Evidence-Based Complementary And Alternative Medicine, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 95–98, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Tovit Rosenzweig, Guila Abitbol, and Dvir Taler, “Evaluating the anti-diabetic effects of Sarcopoterium spinosum extracts in vitro,” Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 103–109, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Fatima Ali AlBraik, Paul M. Rutter, and David Brown, “A cross-sectional survey of herbal remedy taking by United Arab Emirate (UAE) citizens in Abu Dhabi,” Pharmacoepidemiology And Drug Safety, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 725–732, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Omar Said, Stephen Fulder, Khaled Khalil, Hassan Azaizeh, Eli Kassis, and Bashar Saad, “Maintaining A Physiological Blood Glucose Level with Glucolevel, A Combination of Four Anti-Diabetes Plants Used in the Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine,” Evidence-Based Complementary And Alternative Medicine, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 421–428, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Barry Robson, and O. K. Baekpp. 1–598, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • M.H. Pittler, and E. Ernst, “48 Treatments used in complementary and alternative medicine,” vol. 30, pp. 551–560, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ilaria Lampronti, Mahmud T. H. Khan, Monica Borgatti, Nicoletta Bianchi, and Roberto Gambari, “Inhibitory Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts on Interactions between Transcription Factors and Target DNA Sequences,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 303–312, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nicoletta Bianchi, Cristina Zuccato, Ilaria Lampronti, Monica Borgatti, and Roberto Gambari, “Fetal Hemoglobin Inducers from the Natural World: A Novel Approach for Identification of Drugs for the Treatment of β-Thalassemia and Sickle-Cell Anemia,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 141–151, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Polina Smirin, Dvir Taler, Guila Abitbol, Tamar Brutman-Barazani, Zohar Kerem, Sanford R. Sampson, and Tovit Rosenzweig, “Sarcopoterium spinosum extract as an antidiabetic agent: In vitro and in vivo study,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 10–17, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Omar Said, Hilal Zaid, and Bashar Saad, “Greco-Arab and Islamic Herbal Medicine and Cancer Treatment/Prevention,” Bioactive Foods and Extracts, pp. 49–66, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Bashar Saad, and Omar Said, “Tradition and Perspectives of Greco-Arab and Islamic Herbal Medicine,” Herbal Supplements, pp. 209–253, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Neveen Abou El-Soud, and Mona Khalil, “Antioxidative Effects of Allium Cepa Essential Oil in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats,” Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 1, no. -1, pp. 1–8, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hassan Azaizeh, Bashar Saad, Edwin Cooper, and Omar Said, “Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine, a Re-Emerging Health Aid,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 419–424, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Roula Abdel-Massih, Elias Abdou, Elias Baydoun, and Ziad Daoud, “Antibacterial Activity of the Extracts Obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana, and Trigonella foenum-graecum on Highly Drug-Resistant Gram Negative Bacilli,” Journal of Botany, vol. 2010, pp. 1–8, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Neveen Abou El-Soud, Nabila El-Laithy, Gamila El-Saeed, Mohamed Salah Wahby, Mona Khalil, Fatma Morsy, and Nermeen Shaffie, “Antidiabetic activities of foeniculum vulgare mill. essential oil in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 139–146, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Erdem Yesilada, “Contribution of Traditional Medicine in the Healthcare System of the Middle East,” Chinese Journal Of Integrative Medicine, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 95–98, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Bashar Saad, and Omar Said2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Bashar Saad, Bernadette Soudah AbouAtta, Walid Basha, Alaa Hmade, Abdalsalam Kmail, Said Khasib, and Omar Said, “Hypericum triquetrifolium—Derived Factors Downregulate the Production Levels of LPS-Induced Nitric Oxide and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in THP-1 Cells,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, pp. 1–7, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Omar Said, Bashar Saad, Stephen Fulder, Khaled Khalil, and Eli Kassis, “Weight Loss in Animals and Humans Treated with “Weighlevel”, a Combination of Four Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, pp. 1–6, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sanjeev Rastogi, and Krishna Kaphle, “Sustainable Traditional Medicine: Taking the Inspirations from Ancient Veterinary Science,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, pp. 1–6, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Anna Aiello, Ernesto Fattorusso, Marialuisa Menna, Rocco Vitalone, Heinz C. Schröder, and Werner E. G. Müller, “Mumijo Traditional Medicine: Fossil Deposits from Antarctica (Chemical Composition and Beneficial Bioactivity),” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, pp. 1–8, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Shaikh J. Uddin, I. Darren Grice, and Evelin Tiralongo, “Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, pp. 1–7, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Rômulo R. N. Alves, José A. A. Barbosa, Silene L. D. X. Santos, Wedson M. S. Souto, and Raynner R. D. Barboza, “Animal-Based Remedies as Complementary Medicines in the Semi-Arid Region of Northeastern Brazil,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, pp. 1–15, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wei-Wen Kuo, Tsai-Ching Hsu, Mei-Haung Chain, Chao-Hung Lai, Wen-Hong Wang, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Chang-Hai Tsai, Chieh-His Wu, Chih-Yang Huang, and Bor-Show Tzang, “Attenuated Cardiac Mitochondrial-Dependent Apoptotic Effects by Li-Fu Formula in Hamsters Fed with a Hypercholesterol Diet,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, pp. 1–9, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Syam Mohan, Ahmad Bustamam, Siddig Ibrahim, Adel S. Al-Zubairi, Mohammed Aspollah, Rasedee Abdullah, and Manal Mohamed Elhassan, “In Vitro Ultramorphological Assessment of Apoptosis on CEMss Induced by Linoleic Acid-Rich Fraction from Typhonium flagelliforme Tuber,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, pp. 1–12, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Si-Yuan Pan, Si-Bao Chen, Hong-Guang Dong, Zhi-Ling Yu, Ji-Cui Dong, Zhi-Xian Long, Wang-Fun Fong, Yi-Fan Han, and Kam-Ming Ko, “New Perspectives on Chinese Herbal Medicine (Zhong-Yao) Research and Development,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, pp. 1–11, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ghanya Al-Naqeep, Adel S. Al-Zubairi, Maznah Ismail, Zulkhairi Hj Amom, and Norhaizan Mohd Esa, “Antiatherogenic Potential of Nigella sativa Seeds and Oil in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Rabbits,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, pp. 1–8, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Saleh Alqasoumi, Tajdar Husain Khan, Mohammed Al-Yahya, Ibrahim Al-Mofleh, and Syed Rafatullah, “Effect of Acute and Chronic Treatment of Common Spices in Swiss Albino Mice: A Safety Assessment Study,” International Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 80–90, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pathirage Kamal Perera, and Yunman Li, “Functional herbal food ingredients used in type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Pharmacognosy Reviews, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 37–45, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Abdoljalal Marjani, Reza Rahmati, Azad Reza Mansourian, and Gholamreza Veghary, “Effect of peppermint oil on serum lipid peroxidation and hepatic enzymes after immobility stress in mice,” Open Biochemistry Journal, vol. 6, pp. 51–55, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Cassandra L. Quave, Manuel Pardo-de-Santayana, and Andrea Pieroni, “Medical Ethnobotany in Europe: From Field Ethnography to a More Culturally Sensitive Evidence-Based CAM?,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, pp. 1–17, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xu Tao, Peng Jing-bo, Zhang Wen-tong, Zhao Xin, Zhang Tao-tao, Yang Shi-jun, Fang Lei, Zou Zhong-mei, and Cai Da-yong, “Antiatherogenic and Anti-Ischemic Properties of Traditional Chinese Medicine Xinkeshu via Endothelial Protecting Function,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, pp. 1–9, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Najeeb-ur Rehman, Arif-ullah Khan, Khalid M. Alkharfy, and Anwarul-Hassan Gilani, “Pharmacological Basis for the Medicinal Use of Lepidium sativum in Airways Disorders,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, pp. 1–8, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Fahad I. Al-Jenoobi, Mohd Aftab Alam, Khalid M. Alkharfy, Saleh A. Al-Suwayeh, Hesham M. Korashy, Abdullah M. Al-Mohizea, Muzaffar Iqbal, Abdul Ahad, and Mohammad Raish, “Pharmacokinetic interaction studies of fenugreek with CYP3A substrates cyclosporine and carbamazepine,” European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sina Zarrintan, Saeid Aslanabadi, and Reza Rikhtegar, “Early contributions of Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi (865–925) to evidence-based medicine,” International Journal of Cardiology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Paula De Vos, “Yuhanna ibn Masawayh and the Foundations of the Western Pharmaceutical Tradition,” Isis, vol. 104, no. 4, pp. 667–712, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wedson Medeiros Silva Souto, Lorena Cristina Pinto, Lívia Emanuelle Tavares Mendonça, José Silva Mourão, Washington Luiz Silva Vieira, Paulo Fernando Guedes Pereira Montenegro, and Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alvespp. 43–66, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yael Keshet, and Ariela Popper-Giveon, “Integrative Health Care in Israel and Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine: When Health Care Interfaces with Culture and Politics,” Medical Anthropology Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 368–384, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sleman Kadan, Bashar Saad, Yoel Sasson, and Hilal Zaid, “In Vitro Evaluations of Cytotoxicity of Eight Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants and Their Effect on GLUT4 Translocation,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, pp. 1–9, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Olufunmiso Olusola Olajuyigbe, and Anthony Jide Afolayan, “Evaluation of Combination Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Ziziphus mucronata Willd. subsp. mucronata Willd. and Antibiotics against Clinically Important Bacteria,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2013, pp. 1–9, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • H. Zaid, and B. Saad, “State of the Art of Diabetes Treatment in Greco-Arab and Islamic Medicine,” Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Diabetes, pp. 327–337, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Fahad I. Al-Jenoobi, Abdullah M. Al-Mohizea, Saleh A. Al-Suwayeh, Iqbal Muzaffar, Khalid M. Alkharfy, Mohd. Aftab Alam, Hesham M. Korashy, and Rao M. A. Khan, “Lepidium sativum but not Nigella sativa affects carbamazepine disposition in an animal model,” Drug Metabolism Letters, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 47–51, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Al-Jenoobi, Ahad, Raish, Al-Mohizea, and Alam, “Investigating the potential effect of Commiphora myrrha on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline, a narrow therapeutic index drug,” Drug Research, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 312–316, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lin Li, and Po Sing Leung, “Use of herbal medicines and natural products: an alternative approach to overcoming the apoptotic resistance of pancreatic cancer,” The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Konstantin Rozenberg, Polina Smirin, Sanford R Sampson, and Tovit Rosenzweig, “Insulin-sensitizing and insulin-mimetic activities of Sarcopoterium spinosum extract,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ahmad Ibrahim Husein, Mohammed Saleem Ali-Shtayeh, Waheed Jebril Jondi, Nidal Abd-Aljapar Zatar, Ibrahim M. Abu-Reidah, and Rana M. Jamous, “ In vitro antioxidant and antitumor activities of six selected plants used in the Traditional Arabic Palestinian herbal medicine ,” Pharmaceutical Biology, pp. 1–7, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ariela Popper-Giveon, and Yael Keshet, “Complementary Medicine as a Path towards Empowerment of Arab-Palestinian Women in Israel,” Health Care for Women International, pp. 00–00, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • A. Lawrence Gould, “Introduction,” Statistical Methods for Evaluating Safety in Medical Product Development, pp. 1–21, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Si-Yuan Pan, Gerhard Litscher, Si-Hua Gao, Shu-Feng Zhou, Zhi-Ling Yu, Hou-Qi Chen, Shuo-Feng Zhang, Min-Ke Tang, Jian-Ning Sun, and Kam-Ming Ko, “Historical Perspective of Traditional Indigenous Medical Practices: The Current Renaissance and Conservation of Herbal Resources,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2014, pp. 1–20, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Abdulrahman K. Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman M. Al-Elaiwi, Md Tanwir Athar, Mohammad Tariq, Ahmed Al Eid, and Saeed M. Al-Asmary, “A Review of Hepatoprotective Plants Used in Saudi Traditional Medicine,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2014, pp. 1–22, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lisa Klautzer, Joachim Becker, and Soeren Mattke, “The curse of wealth - Middle Eastern countries need to address the rapidly rising burden of diabetes,” International Journal of Health Policy and Management, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 109–114, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Baydoun Safaa, Chalak Lamis, Dalleh Helena, and Arnold Nelly, “Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Medicine by the Communities of Mount Hermon, Lebanon,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Amit D. Kandhare, Subhash L. Bodhankar, V. Mohan, and Prasad A. Thakurdesai, “Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion study of a furostanol glycoside-based standardized fenugreek seed extract in rats,” Renal Failure, pp. 1–11, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Bashar Saad, “Integrating Traditional Greco-Arab and Islamic Diet and Herbal Medicines in Research and Clinical Practice,” Phytotherapies, pp. 142–182, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Esra Küpeli Akkol, Murside Ayse Demirel, Ozlem Bahadır Acıkara, Ipek Süntar, Burcin Ergene, Mert Ilhan, Serkan Ozbilgin, Gulcin Saltan, Hikmet Keleş, and Mehmet Tekin, “Phytochemical analyses and effects of Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm. and Alchemilla persica Rothm. in rat endometriosis model,” Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Erdem Yesilada, “Ethnopharmacology in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East: ‘The Sun Rises from the East, but Shines on the Eastern Mediterranean’,” Ethnopharmacology, pp. 357–364, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Maya Bassil, Costantine F Daher, Mohammad Mroueh, and Nadine Zeeni, “Salvia libanotica improves glycemia and serum lipid profile in rats fed a high fat diet,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 15, no. 1, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Paula De Vos, “Apothecaries, Artists, and Artisans: Early Industrial Material Culture in the Biological Old Regime,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 277–336, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pereira da Silva Juliane, Nunes de Souza Ferro Jamylle, Ferreira da Silva Filho Benisio, Antônio Ferreira da Silva Luiz, Priscila Medeiros Souza Tayhana, de Carvalho Matos Heloisa, de Frias Carvalho Vinicius, Santos Rodarte Renato, and Barreto Emiliano, “Aqueous extract of Bowdichia virgilioides stem bark inhibition of allergic inflammation in mice,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 10, no. 34, pp. 575–584, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Madhu C. Divakar, Amani Al-Siyabi, Shirley S. Varghese, and Mohammed Al-Rubaie, “The practice of ethnomedicine in the Northern and Southern Provinces of Oman,” Oman Medical Journal, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 245–252, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sa’ed H. Zyoud, Samah W. Al-Jabi, Waleed M Sweileh, Ghada H. Tabeeb, Nora A. Ayaseh, Mayas N. Sawafta, Razan L. Khdeir, Diana O. Mezyed, Dala N. Daraghmeh, and Rahmat Awang, “Use of complementary and alternative medicines in haemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study from Palestine,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 16, no. 1, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Amit D. Kandhare, Subhash L. Bodhankar, Vishwaraman Mohan, and Prasad A. Thakurdesai, “Development and validation of HPLC method for vicenin-1 isolated from fenugreek seeds in rat plasma: application to pharmacokinetic, tissue distribution and excretion studies,” Pharmaceutical Biology, pp. 1–9, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nidal Amin Jaradat, Rowa Al-Ramahi, Abdel Naser Zaid, Ola Ibrahim Ayesh, and Ahmad Mustafa Eid, “Ethnopharmacological survey of herbal remedies used for treatment of various types of cancer and their methods of preparations in the West Bank-Palestine,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 16, no. 1, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mahmood Hilal, and Sawsan Hilal, “Knowledge, attitude, and utilization of herbal medicines by physicians in the Kingdom of Bahrain: A cross-sectional study,” Journal of the Association of Arab Universities for Basic and Applied Sciences, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mohamed Hassali, Inas Ibrahim, Fahad Saleem, and Haydar Al Tukmagi, “A qualitative insight on complementary and alternative medicines used by hypertensive patients,” Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 284–288, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Humaira Shaheen, Mirza Faisal Qaseem, Muhammad Shoaib Amjad, and Piero Bruschi, “Exploration of ethno-medicinal knowledge among rural communities of Pearl Valley; Rawalakot, District Poonch Azad Jammu and Kashmir,” Plos One, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. e0183956, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Abdel Naser Zaid, Nidal Amin Jaradat, Ahmad Mustafa Eid, Hamzeh Al Zabadi, Abdulsalam Alkaiyat, and Saja Adam Darwish, “Ethnopharmacological survey of home remedies used for treatment of hair and scalp and their methods of preparation in the West Bank-Palestine,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 17, no. 1, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Si-Hui Nian, Hui-Jun Li, E-Hu Liu, and Ping Li, “Comparison of ?-glucosidase inhibitory effect and bioactive constituents of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and Fibrous Roots,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Siba Shanak, Bashar Saad, Hilal Zaid, and Sleman Kadanpp. 1–257, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Bashar Saad, Hilal Zaid, Siba Shanak, Sleman Kadan, Bashar Saad, Hilal Zaid, Siba Shanak, and Sleman Kadan, “Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants,” Anti-diabetes and Anti-obesity Medicinal Plants and Phytochemicals, pp. 147–174, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Abdelghani Tbakhi, and Samir S. Amr, “Ibn Al-Haytham: Father of Modern Optics,” Annals of Saudi Medicine, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 464–467, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Aly Farag El Sheikha, “Medicinal Plants: Ethno-Uses to Biotechnology Era,” Biotechnology and Production of Anti-Cancer Compounds, pp. 1–38, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lin Li, Grace Gar-Lee Yue, Julia Kin-Ming Lee, Eric Chun-Wai Wong, Kwok-Pui Fung, Jun Yu, Clara Bik-San Lau, and Philip Wai-Yan Chiu, “The adjuvant value of Andrographis paniculata in metastatic esophageal cancer treatment – from preclinical perspectives,” Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 1, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sara N. AlRawi, Amal Khidir, Maha S. Elnashar, Huda A. Abdelrahim, Amal K. Killawi, Maya M. Hammoud, and Michael D. Fetters, “Traditional Arabic & Islamic medicine: validation and empirical assessment of a conceptual model in Qatar,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 17, no. 1, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Abeer Abdelhalim, Talal Aburjai, Jane Hanrahan, and Heba Abdel-Halim, “Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Jordan, the Tafila region,” Pharmacognosy Magazine, vol. 13, no. 49, pp. S95–S101, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yousra Bseiso, Hakam Alkhateeb, Esam Qnais, and Mohammad Wedyan, “Evaluation of analgesic activity of the methanol extract from the leaves of Arum palaestinum in mice and rats,” Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1159–1166, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ahmad M. Eid, Nagib A. Elmarzugi, Laila M. Abu Ayyash, Maher N. Sawafta, and Hadeel I. Daana, “ A Review on the Cosmeceutical and External Applications of Nigella sativa ,” Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 2017, pp. 1–6, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mohd Kashif Husain, Mohd Khalid, Goli Penchala Pratap, and Munnawar Husain Kazmi, “Relevance of Traditional Unani (Greco-Arab) System of Medicine in Cancer: An Update,” Anticancer Plants: Clinical Trials and Nanotechnology, pp. 273–302, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hanine Almubayedh, Atta A. Naqvi, Niyaz Ahmad, and Rizwan Ahmad, “Ethnopharmacological uses and public knowledge regarding Cinnamomum zeylanicum in Khobar, Saudi Arabia,” Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 159–165, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mahboobeh Nejatian, Ali Alami, Hadi Tehrani, Elaheh Lael Monfare, and Alireza Jafari Baghkheirati, “Perceptions and personal use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) by Iranian health care providers,” Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Divya Gupta, Vishal Gupta, and Mukesh Kumar, “An in vitro investigation of antimicrobial efficacy of Euphorbia Hirta and Murraya koenigii against selected pathogenic microorganisms,” Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 359–363, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ali H. Ad’hiah, Ruqaia M. Ibraheem, and Khulood W. Abbood, “ Modulation of cytokine production from cultured mononuclear cells of leukemia patients by Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra methanolic extract ,” Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, pp. 1–7, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Abdolhossin Miri, and Mina Sarani, “Biosynthesis, characterization and cytotoxic activity of CeO 2 nanoparticles,” Ceramics International, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lin Li, Grace Gar-Lee Yue, Julia Kin-Ming Lee, Eric Chun-Wai Wong, Kwok-Pui Fung, Jun Yu, Clara Bik-San Lau, and Philip Wai-Yan Chiu, “ Gene expression profiling reveals the plausible mechanisms underlying the antitumor and antimetastasis effects of Andrographis paniculata in esophageal cancer ,” Phytotherapy Research, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mostafa Elachouripp. 105–118, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • David Sarpong, David Botchie, and Bidit Dey, “From Marginal to Mainstream: The Revival, Transformation, and Boom of Plant Medicine,” Science and Public Policy, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Muhammad Arif, Waseem Razzaq Khan, Muhammad Khurram Shahzad, Amna Hussain, and Cao Yukun, “Exploring the Therapeutic Characteristics of Plant Species in the Chichawatni Irrigated Plantation Pakistan,” Plant and Human Health, Volume 1, pp. 707–718, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Saleh Abubu-Lafi, Hayaayaaya J. Ayyal Salman, Fuauad Al-Rimawi, Fadi Alakhras, Wael A. Al-Zereini, Hammad K. Aldal, and Ghassab M. Al-Mazaideh, “HPLC analysis of chemical composition of selected jordanian medicinal plants and their bioactive properties,” Oriental Journal of Chemistry, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 2397–2403, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ahmad M. Samara, Ethar R. Barabra, Hala N. Quzaih, and Sa’ed H. Zyoud, “Use and acceptance of complementary and alternative medicine among medical students: a cross sectional study from Palestine,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 19, no. 1, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar