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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 7 (2010), Issue 1, Pages 121-127
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nem163
Original Article

Regional Brain Activation during Meditation Shows Time and Practice Effects: An Exploratory FMRI Study

1Brain Stimulation Laboratory, Institute of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, USA
2Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC, USA
3Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA
4Center for Advanced Imaging Research, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA
5Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA

Received 18 May 2007; Accepted 12 September 2007

Copyright © 2010 E. Baron Short et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Meditation involves attentional regulation and may lead to increased activity in brain regions associated with attention such as dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether DLPFC and ACC were activated during meditation. Subjects who meditate were recruited and scanned on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. Subjects meditated for four sessions of 12 min and performed four sessions of a 6 min control task. Individual and group t-maps were generated of overall meditation response versus control response and late meditation response versus early meditation response for each subject and time courses were plotted. For the overall group (n = 13), and using an overall brain analysis, there were no statistically significant regional activations of interest using conservative thresholds. A region of interest analysis of the entire group time courses of DLPFC and ACC were statistically more active throughout meditation in comparison to the control task. Moreover, dividing the cohort into short (n = 8) and long-term (n = 5) practitioners (>10 years) revealed that the time courses of long-term practitioners had significantly more consistent and sustained activation in the DLPFC and the ACC during meditation versus control in comparison to short-term practitioners. The regional brain activations in the more practised subjects may correlate with better sustained attention and attentional error monitoring. In summary, brain regions associated with attention vary over the time of a meditation session and may differ between long- and short-term meditation practitioners.