Table 2: Summary of hemodynamic parameters.

ParameterBaselineDuring TS10 min after TS20 min after TS30 min after TS40 min after TS

VD (mm)
 Median (first, third quartile)4.4 (3.85, 4.6)4.6 (4.0, 4.8)4.47 (4.07, 4.77)4.45 (4.0, 4.73)4.55 (3.87, 4.7)4.45 (3.85, 4.76)
 Mean (SEM)4.35 (0.11)4.56 (0.13)**4.47 (0.12)4.48 (0.11)*4.47 (0.13)4.40 (0.13)
 95% CI4.13–4.584.31–4.804.24–4.714.23–4.704.22–4.724.16–4.64
PSV (cm/s)
 Median (first, third quartile)76.8 (64.9, 95)77.8 (70, 87.8)82.1 (62, 93)74.375 (58.2, 82.2)74.7 (62.2, 87.6)73 (57.5, 78.1)
 Mean (SEM)80.2 (4.0)80.0 (4.0)79.0 (4.3)74.4 (3.5)73.3 (3.5)*70.1 (3.5)**
 95% CI7.32–88.072.1–87.970.6–87.467.5–81.366.5–80.263.3–76.9
EDV (cm/s)
 Median (first, third quartile)16.7 (14.0, 21.2)16.9 (14.7, 20.8)16.6 (12.2, 20.7)14.8 (12.0, 20.2)14.2 (12.2, 17.1)11.3 (9.3, 14.2)
 Mean (SEM)17.9 (1.3)17.3 (1.2)16.8 (1.2)15.6 (1.1)14.8 (1.1)**11.6 (0.9)**
 95% CI15.5–20.415.0–19.614.4–19.213.4–17.812.6–17.19.9–13.3
RI
 Median (first, third quartile)0.83 (0.75, 0.90)0.80 (0.75, 0.86)0.79 (0.76, 0.85)0.81 (0.78, 0.85)0.83 (0.80, 0.96)0.89 (0.95)
 Mean (SEM)0.87 (0.04)0.85 (0.03)0.85 (0.04)0.87 (0.04)0.90 (0.04)0.92 (0.03)**
 95% CI0.79,–0.940.77–0.920.78–0.920.79–0.940.82–0.980.87–0.98
PI
 Median (first, third quartile)2.45 (1.98, 3.18)2.33 (1.97, 2.68)2.25 (1.96, 2.85)2.33 (2.05, 2.88)2.64 (2.20, 3.48)3.26 (2.77, 3.76)
 Mean (SEM)4.22 (1.05)3.29 (0.71)3.32 (0.67)3.58 (0.83)3.65 (0.69)3.62 (0.50)
 95% CI2.17–6.271.90–4.681.99–4.631.96–5.212.29–5.012.66–4.58
MV (ml/s)
 Median (first, third quartile)28.4 (20.7, 34.3)29.0 (19.4, 34.6)28.8 (20.4, 33.0)25.9 (19.9, 32.2)24.5 (16.2, 28.7)22.0 (15.5, 25.4)
 Mean (SEM)27.4 (2.4)27.3 (2.2)26.8 (2.3)25.1 (2.1)23.4 (1.9)**20.9 (1.6)**
 95% CI22.6–32.123.0–31.522.3–31.221.1–29.219.5–27.217.9–23.9
BFV (ml/min)
 Median (first, third quartile)248.2 (204.3, 326.3)262.8 (211.1, 365.8)271.3 (190.8, 329.2)242.7 (188.4, 314.0)218.4 (154.0, 273.4)178.2 (136.6, 247.1)
 Mean (SEM)246.3 (25.2)268.2 (26.4)255.4 (25.2)240.4 (24.1)220.8 (22.2)195.3 (21.1)**
 95% CI200.6–292.0220.3–316.1209.8–301.1196.8–284.0180.5–261.1158.1–232.5

Hemodynamic parameters measured by ultrasound are shown for the brachial artery. The values represent medians and quartile (first and third), means and SEM and 95% CI. TS, thermal stimulation; BFV, blood flow volume. , versus baseline.