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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2011, Article ID 245209, 8 pages
Original Article

Red Mold Rice Mitigates Oral Carcinogenesis in 7,12-Dimethyl-1,2-Benz[a]anthracene-Induced Oral Carcinogenesis in Hamster

1R&D Division, Sunway Biotechnology Company Limited, Taipei, Taiwan
2Institute of Microbiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

Received 29 July 2009; Accepted 24 November 2009

Copyright © 2011 Ruei-Lan Tsai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The prevalence of oral tumor has exponentially increased in recent years; however, the effective therapies or prevention strategies are not sufficient. Red mold rice is a traditional Chinese food, and several reports have demonstrated that red mold rice had an anti-tumor effect. However, the possible anti-tumor mechanisms of the red mold rice are unclear. In this study, we examined the anti-tumor effect of red mold rice on 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral tumor in hamster. The ethanol extract of red mold rice (RMRE) treatment significantly decreases the levels of DMBA-induced reactive oxygen species, nitro oxide and prostaglandin E2 than those of the lovastatin-treated group (P < .001). Moreover, RMRE decreases the formation of oral tumor induced by DMBA. Monacolin K, monascin, ankaflavin or other red mold rice metabolites had been reported to decrease inflammation and oxidative stress and exerted anti-tumor effects. Therefore, we evaluated the anti-inflammation and anti-oxidative stress effects of monacolin K, monascin, ankaflavin and citrinin in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 cells. We found that RMRE reduced the LPS-induced nitrite levels in RAW264.7 cells better than monacolin K, monascin, ankaflavin or citrinin (P < .05).