Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2011 / Article / Tab 2

Original Article

The Impact of Group Drumming on Social-Emotional Behavior in Low-Income Children

Table 2

Mean (standard deviation) TRF broad-band scale scores by classroom.

TE1 (n = 24)TE2 (n = 22)TE3 (n = 30)TE4 (n = 25)

ConditionDCNDCN
TRF scale
 Baseline TO7.6 (7.9)15.5 (11.3)10.7 (9.0)18.0 (14.6)
 Post-TO3.6 (3.2)17.4 (11.1)7.4 (7.9)20.4 (14.0)
 Difference TO4.0 (7.9)–1.9 (7.4)3.3 (6.2)–2.4 (7.6)
 Baseline IP2.3 (3.1)3.4 (2.5)4.3 (4.8)4.4 (4.1)
 Post-IP1.3 (1.4)4.3 (2.8)2.3 (2.2)4.1 (3.4)
 Difference IP1.0 (3.2)–0.9 (3.1)2.0 (3.5)0.3 (2.6)

TE: teacher; D: drumming; CN: control; TRF: Teacher’s Report Form; Difference: difference score (post-intervention/control minus baseline); TO: total problems; IP: internalizing problems. A positive value for difference scores indicates improvement whereas a negative value indicates worsening of symptoms.