Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2011 / Article / Tab 3

Original Article

The Impact of Group Drumming on Social-Emotional Behavior in Low-Income Children

Table 3

Mean (standard deviation) TRF narrow-band syndrome scale scores by classroom.

TE1 (n = 24)TE2 (n = 22)TE3 (n = 30)TE4 (n = 25)

ConditionDCNDCN
TRF scale
 Baseline WD0.6 (1.5)1.8 (1.8)1.9 (2.1)3.1 (3.0)
 Post-WD0.1 (0.5)2.5 (2.1)1.1 (1.3)3.2 (2.6)
 Difference WD0.5 (1.6)–0.7 (2.4)0.8 (1.3)–0.1 (1.6)
 Baseline AP4.2 (4.6)9.7 (9.2)3.1 (4.6)9.1 (8.1)
 Post-AP1.8 (2.3)10.8 (7.6)2.6 (4.1)10.6 (8.0)
 Difference AP2.4 (4.0)–1.1 (4.1)0.5 (2.3)–1.5 (4.4)
 Baseline IN3.2 (3.7)6.0 (5.5)1.5 (2.9)6.8 (7.1)
 Post-IN1.0 (1.7)7.2 (4.9)0.8 (1.8)7.9 (6.5)
 Difference IN2.2 (3.1)–1.2 (3.3)0.7 (1.5)–1.1 (3.7)

TE: teacher; D: drumming; CN: control; TRF: Teacher’s Report Form; Difference: difference score (post-intervention/control minus baseline); WD: withdrawn/depressed; AP: attention problems; IN: inattention (subscale of AP). A positive value for difference scores indicates improvement whereas a negative value indicates worsening of symptoms.