Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2011 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Systematic Review of Clinical Trials Assessing the Effectiveness of Ivy Leaf (Hedera Helix) for Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

Table 1

Characteristics of included studies.

ReferenceCountryPatients (I/C)*Inclusion criteriaC/A**Gender (m/f in %)Age range (years)TreatmentTreatment (days)
Intervention groupdaily doseControl groupdaily dose

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs)

Kemmerich et al. 2006Germany182/178Acute bronchitisA46.7/53.318–87 yIvy + Thyme, “Bronchipret” syrup
Ivy: 1.5 g LE/100 g (1:1, E70%)
Thyme: 15 g LE/100 g (1:2–2.5)
16.2 mlPlacebon.a.10
Unkauf and Friedrich 2000Germany25/27Acute bronchitisC51.9/48.1<12 yIvy, “Valverde” syrup 0.33–0.5 g DE/100 ml (3–6:1, E60%)10–20 mlIvy, “Prospan” syrup 0.7 g DE/100 ml (5–7.5:1, E30%)10–20 ml10

Controlled trials (CCTs)

Bolbot et al. 2004Ukraine25/25Acute bronchitisC64.0/36.02–10 yIvy, “Prospan” syrup (5–7.5:1)15–30 mlAcetylcysteine300–1200 mg7–10

Observational studies (OSs)

Büechi and Kähler 2003Switzerland56Acute bronchitis, common coldC/A32.1/67.97–93 yIvy, pastilles 26 mg DE/pastille (4–8:1, E30%)2–6 pastilles, 52–156 mg DE7
Büechi et al. 2005Switzerland62Acute and chronic bronchitis, common coldA40.3/59.716–89 yIvy + Thyme, syrup, Ivy: 1.0 g DE/100 g (4–8:1, E30%)
Thyme: 25.4 g DE/100 g (1:3.5–4)
5–15 ml (6.7–20.1g)3–23
Fazio et al. 2009Latin America***9657Acute and chronic bronchitis, coughC/ANR0–98 yIvy, syrup (5–7.5:1, E30%)7.5–22.5 ml7
Hecker 1999Germany248BronchitisC/A44.4/55.60–70 yIvy, “Prospan” syrup in 48.4% of patients, “Prospan” effervescent tablets in 51.6% of patientsNRn.a.~8 (mean)
Leskow 1985Germany84Acute and chronic bronchitis, chesty cough, pertussisC/A46.4/53.61–82 yIvy, “Prospan” drops 2 g DE/100 ml30–100 drops12.3 (mean)
Marzian 2007Germany1044Acute bronchitisC50.5/49.50–17 yIvy + Thyme, “Bronchipret” syrup
Ivy: 1.5 g LE/100 g (1:1, E70%)
Thyme: 15 g LE/100 g (1:2–2.5)
9.6–16.2 ml10
Santoro Júnior 2005Brasil5850BronchitisC/A47.9/52.1NRIvy, “Abrilar” syrup7.5–22.5 ml7

n.a. = not applicable, NR = not reported, DE = dry extract, LE = liquid extract, E% = ethanol %, Values are reported as stated in the respective publications. If information is missing (e.g., composition of herbal preparation), the paper does not give any more details. Brand names are marked by quotation marks. *Number of participants included in analysis (I/C = number in Intervention/Control group) **C/A = Children/Adults, ***11 countries in Latin America.

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