Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2011, Article ID 383245, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nep022
Review Article

Quality of Reporting of Randomized Clinical Trials in Tai Chi Interventions—A Systematic Review

1Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
2National Study Center for Trauma & EMS, 701 W. Pratt Street, Suite 590, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
3Department of Kinesiology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
4Center for Orthopedics, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing, China
5Wangjing Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
6Health Outcome Management, LLC, USA
7Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology & Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA

Received 10 July 2008; Accepted 24 February 2009

Copyright © 2011 Jing-Yi Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. F. Schulz, L. Chalmers, R. J. Hayes, and D. G. Altman, “Empirical evidence of bias: dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 273, no. 5, pp. 408–412, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. Moher, B. Pham, A. Jones et al., “Does quality of reports of randomised trials affect estimates of intervention efficacy reported in meta-analyses?” The Lancet, vol. 352, no. 9128, pp. 609–613, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. Begg, M. Cho, S. Eastwood et al., “Improving the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials: the CONSORT statement,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 276, no. 8, pp. 637–639, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. Moher, D. G. Altman, K. F. Schulz et al., “The revised CONSORT statement for reporting randomized trials: explanation and elaboration,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 134, no. 8, pp. 663–694, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E. Mills, Y. K. Loke, P. Wu et al., “Determining the reporting quality of RCTs in clinical pharmacology,” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 61–65, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. J. Selman, N. P. Johnson, J. Zamora, and K. S. Khan, “Gynaecologic surgery from uncertainty to science: evolution of randomized control trials,” Human Reproduction, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 827–831, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. Thabane, R. Chu, K. Cuddy, and J. Douketis, “What is the quality of reporting in weight loss intervention studies? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1554–1559, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. L. Prady, S. J. Richmond, V. M. Morton, and H. MacPherson, “A systematic evaluation of the impact of STRICTA and CONSORT recommendations on quality of reporting for acupuncture trials,” PLoS ONE, vol. 3, no. 2, Article ID e1577, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. B. Hulley, S. R. Cummings, W. S. Browner, D. Grady, N. Hearst, and T. B. Newman, Designing Clinical Research, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2001.
  10. G. Wu, “Evaluation of the effectiveness of Tai Chi for improving balance and preventing falls in the older population—a review,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 746–754, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. M. Wayne and T. J. Kaptchuk, “Challenges inherent to t'ai chi research: part II—defining the intervention and optimal study design,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 191–197, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. I. Boutron, D. Moher, D. G. Altman, K. F. Schulz, and P. Ravaud, “Extending the CONSORT statement to randomized trials of nonpharmacologic treatment: explanation and elaboration,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 148, no. 4, pp. 295–309, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Chinese Sports Editorial Board, Simplified Taijiquan, Foreign Languages Printing House, Beijing, China, 3rd edition, 1986.
  14. S. L. Wolf, C. Coogler, and T. Xu, “Exploring the basis for Tai Chi Chuan as a therapeutic exercise approach,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 78, no. 8, pp. 886–892, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. Jin, “Efficacy of Tai Chi, brisk walking, meditation, and reading in reducing mental and emotional stress,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 361–370, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. O. Judge, C. Lindsey, M. Underwood, D. Winsemius, and E. A. Keshner, “Balance improvements in older women: effects of exercise training,” Physical Therapy, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 254–265, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. L. Wolf, N. G. Kutner, R. C. Green, and E. McNeely, “The Atlanta FICSIT study: two exercise interventions to reduce frailty in elders,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 329–332, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. R. Brown, Y. Wang, A. Ward et al., “Chronic psychological effects of exercise and exercise plus cognitive strategies,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 765–775, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. S. Channer, D. Barrow, R. Barrow, M. Osborne, and G. Ives, “Changes in haemodynamic parameters following Tai Chi Chuan and aerobic exercise in patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 72, no. 848, pp. 349–351, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. L. Wolf, H. X. Barnhart, N. G. Kutner, E. McNeely, C. Coogler, and T. Xu, “Reducing frailty and falls in older persons: an investigation of Tai Chi and computerized balance training. Atlanta FICSIT group. Frailty and injuries: cooperative studies of intervention techniques,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 489–497, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. Wolfson, R. Whipple, C. Derby et al., “Balance and strength training in older adults: intervention gains and Tai Chi maintenance,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 498–506, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. R. Young, L. J. Appel, S. Jee, and E. R. Miller III, “The effects of aerobic exercise and T'ai Chi on blood pressure in older people: results of a randomized trial,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 277–284, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. A. Hartman, T. M. Manos, C. Winter, D. M. Hartman, B. Li, and J. C. Smith, “Effects of T’ai Chi training on function and quality of life indicators in older adults with osteoarthritis,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 1553–1559, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. Li, P. Harmer, E. McAuley et al., “An evaluation of the effects of Tai Chi exercise on physical function among older persons: a randomized controlled trial,” Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 139–146, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. P. Nowalk, J. M. Prendergast, C. M. Bayles, F. J. D'Amico, and G. C. Colvin, “A randomized trial of exercise programs among older individuals living in two long-term care facilities: the fallsFREE program,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 859–865, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. R. Irwin, J. L. Pike, J. C. Cole, and M. N. Oxman, “Effects of a behavioral intervention, Tai Chi Chih, on varicella-zoster virus specific immunity and health functioning in older adults,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 824–830, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. Song, E.-O. Lee, P. Lam, and S.-C. Bae, “Effects of Tai Chi exercise on pain, balance, muscle strength, and perceived difficulties in physical functioning in older women with osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial,” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 2039–2044, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J.-C. Tsai, W.-H. Wang, P. Chan et al., “The beneficial effects of Tai Chi chuan on blood pressure and lipid profile and anxiety status in a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 747–754, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. L. Wolf, R. W. Sattin, M. Kutner, M. O'Grady, A. I. Greenspan, and R. J. Gregor, “Intense Tai Chi exercise training and fall occurrences in older, transitionally frail adults: a randomized, controlled trial,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 1693–1701, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. Chan, L. Qin, M. Lau et al., “A randomized, prospective study of the effects of Tai Chi Chun exercise on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 85, pp. 717–722, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  31. F. Li, K. J. Fisher, P. Harmer, D. Irbe, R. G. Tearse, and C. Weimer, “Tai Chi and self-rated quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness in older adults: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 892–900, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. A. McGibbon, D. E. Krebs, S. L. Wolf, P. M. Wayne, D. M. Scarborough, and S. W. Parker, “Tai Chi and vestibular rehabilitation effects on gaze and whole-body stability,” Journal of Vestibular Research, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 467–478, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. M. Mustian, J. A. Katula, D. L. Gill, J. A. Roscoe, D. Lang, and K. Murphy, “Tai Chi Chuan, health-related quality of life and self-esteem: a randomized trial with breast cancer survivors,” Supportive Care in Cancer, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 871–876, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. G. Y. Yeh, M. J. Wood, B. H. Lorell et al., “Effects of Tai Chi mind-body movement therapy on functional status and exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure: a randomized controlled trial,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 117, no. 8, pp. 541–548, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. L. Galantino, K. Shepard, L. Krafft et al., “The effect of group aerobic exercise and T'ai Chi on functional outcomes and quality of life for persons living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1085–1092, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. F. Li, P. Harmer, K. J. Fisher et al., “Tai Chi and fall reductions in older adults: a randomized controlled trial,” Journals of Gerontology—Series A, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 187–194, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. N. Thomas, A. W. L. Hong, B. Tomlinson et al., “Effects of Tai Chi and resistance training on cardiovascular risk factors in elderly Chinese subjects: a 12-month longitudinal, randomized, controlled intervention study,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 663–669, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. F. Audette, Y. S. Jin, R. Newcomer, L. Stein, G. Duncan, and W. R. Frontera, “Tai Chi versus brisk walking in elderly women,” Age and Ageing, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 388–393, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. J. Faber, R. J. Bosscher, M. J. Chin A Paw, and P. C. van Wieringen, “Effects of exercise programs on falls and mobility in frail and pre-frail older adults: a multicenter randomized controlled trial,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 885–896, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. K. Gatts and M. H. Woollacott, “Neural mechanisms underlying balance improvement with short term Tai Chi training,” Aging, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 7–19, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. Gemmell and J. M. Leathem, “A study investigating the effects of Tai Chi Chuan: individuals with traumatic brain injury compared to controls,” Brain Injury, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 151–156, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. M. Mustian, J. A. Katula, and H. Zhao, “A pilot study to assess the influence of Tai Chi Chuan on functional capacity among breast cancer survivors,” Journal of Supportive Oncology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 139–145, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. O. Nnodim, D. Strasburg, M. Nabozny et al., “Dynamic balance and stepping versus tai chi training to improve balance and stepping in at-risk older adults,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 1825–1831, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. L. W. Robins, N. L. McCain, D. P. Gray, R. K. Elswick Jr., J. M. Walter, and E. McDade, “Research on psychoneuroimmunology: Tai Chi as a stress management approach for individuals with HIV disease,” Applied Nursing Research, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 2–9, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. D. E. Barrow, A. Bedford, G. Ives, L. O'Toole, and K. S. Channer, “An evaluation of the effects of Tai Chi Chuan and Chi Kung training in patients with symptomatic heart failure: a randomised controlled pilot study,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 83, no. 985, pp. 717–721, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J.-M. Brismée, R. L. Paige, M.-C. Chyu et al., “Group and home-based Tai Chi in elderly subjects with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial,” Clinical Rehabilitation, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 99–111, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Fransen, L. Nairn, J. Winstanley, P. Lam, and J. Edmonds, “Physical activity for osteoarthritis management: a randomized controlled clinical trial evaluating hydrotherapy or Tai Chi classes,” Arthritis Care and Research, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 407–414, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. K. Gatts and M. H. Woollacott, “How Tai Chi improves balance: biomechanics of recovery to a walking slip in impaired seniors,” Gait and Posture, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 205–214, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. R. Irwin, R. Olmstead, and M. N. Oxman, “Augmenting immune responses to varicella zoster virus in older adults: a randomized, controlled trial of Tai Chi,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 511–517, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. Maciaszek, W. Osiński, R. Szeklicki, and R. Stemplewski, “Effect of Tai Chi on body balance: randomized controlled trial in men with osteopenia or osteoporosis,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C.-L. Shen, J. S. Williams, M.-C. Chyu et al., “Comparison of the effects of Tai Chi and resistance training on bone metabolism in the elderly: a feasibility study,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 369–381, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. T. Tsang, R. Orr, P. Lam, E. J. Comino, and M. F. Singh, “Health benefits of Tai Chi for older patients with type 2 diabetes: the “Move It for Diabetes study”—a randomized controlled trial,” Clinical Interventions in Aging, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 429–439, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  53. A. Voukelatos, R. G. Cumming, S. R. Lord, and C. Rissel, “A randomized, controlled trial of Tai Chi for the prevention of falls: the central sydney Tai Chi trial,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 1185–1191, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. Woo, A. Hong, E. Lau, and H. Lynn, “A randomised controlled trial of Tai Chi and resistance exercise on bone health, muscle strength and balance in community-living elderly people,” Age and Ageing, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 262–268, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Y. Yang, J. V. Verkuilen, K. S. Rosengren, S. A. Grubisich, M. R. Reed, and E. T. Hsiao-Wecksler, “Effect of combined Taiji and Qigong training on balance mechanisms: a randomized controlled trial of older adults,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. CR339–CR348, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. R. B. Abbott, K.-K. Hui, R. D. Hays, M.-D. Li, and T. Pan, “A randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi for tension headaches,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 107–113, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. Moher, K. F. Schulz, D. Altman et al., “The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomized trials,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 285, no. 15, pp. 1987–1991, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. P. M. Wayne and T. J. Kaptchuk, “Challenges inherent to T'ai Chi research: part I—T'ai Chi as a complex multicomponent intervention,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 95–102, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. A. C. Plint, D. Moher, A. Morrison et al., “Does the CONSORT checklist improve the quality of reports of randomised controlled trials? A systematic review,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 185, no. 5, pp. 263–267, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. A. Berlin, “Does blinding of readers affect the results of meta-analyses? University of Pennsylvania meta-analysis blinding study group,” The Lancet, vol. 350, no. 9072, pp. 185–186, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. R. Jadad, R. A. Moore, D. Carroll et al., “Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary?” Controlled Clinical Trials, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. P. B. Fontanarosa and G. D. Lundberg, “Alternative medicine meets science,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 280, no. 18, pp. 1618–1619, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus