Table 3: Hypothesis 2: laying on of hands is associated with better health outcomes.

StudySampleFollow-upType of StudyPredictorOutcomeResultsJadad Score

Woods et al. [37]65 nursing home residents3 daysRCT, BTT Vs PLTTBehavioral symptoms and cortisolRestlessness was significantly reduced in the experimental group compared to the control group ( ). There was a significant difference in morning cortisol variability among groups across time periods ( )5

Gomes et al. [47]42 university students3 sessionsRCT, BTT Vs PLTTAnxietyThe analysis of the data showed a statistically significant reduction of the state of anxiety in both groups, with 4

Aghabati et al. [40]90 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy5 daysRCT, BTT Vs PLTT Vs UCPain and FatigueThe TT was more effective in decreasing pain and fatigue of the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy than the usual care group, while the placebo group indicated a decreasing trend in pain and fatigue scores compared with the usual care group5

Hawranik et al. [38]51 residents of a long term care facility5 daysRCT, BTT Vs PLTT Vs UCDisruptive behaviorPhysical nonaggressive behaviors decreased significantly in those residents who received therapeutic touch compared with those who received the simulated version and the usual care. No significant differences in physically aggressive and verbally agitated behaviors were observed across the three study groups4

Frank et al. [44]82 patients submitted to stereotactic breast biopsyImmediately after procedureRCT, BTT Vs PLTTPain and anxietyNo significant differences between the arms were seen regarding postbiopsy pain ( ) and anxiety ( )5

Woods et al. [39]57 nursing home residents6 daysRCT, BTT Vs PLTT Vs UCOverall behavioral symptoms of dementia,The TT (significant) was more effective in decreasing behavioral symptoms of dementia than usual care, while the placebo group indicated a decreasing trend in behavioral symptoms of dementia compared to usual care4

Blankfield et al. [45]21 participants with carpal tunnel syndrome6 weeksRCT, BTT Vs PLTTvisual analog assessments of pain and relaxationChanges in pain scores and relaxation scores did not differ between participants in the TT group and participants in the PLTT group4

Gordon et al. [41]25 patients with knee osteoarthritisRCT, BTT Vs PLTT Vs UCPain and functional statusThe treatment group had significantly decreased pain and improved function as compared with the placebo and control groups4

Turner et al. [42]99 burn patients6 daysRCT, BTT Vs PLTTPain, Anxiety and satisfaction with lifeSubjects who received TT reported significantly greater reduction in pain and greater reduction in anxiety on the Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety than did those who received sham TT4

Meehan [46]108 postoperative patients1 hourRCT, BTT Vs PLTT Vs UCPostoperative PainTherapeutic touch did not significantly decrease postoperative pain compared to the placebo control intervention4

Keller and Bzdek [43]60 patients with TTH4 hoursRCT, BTT Vs PLTTPain90% of the subjects exposed to TT experienced a sustained reduction in headache pain, 4

TT: therapeutic touch; PLTT: placebo therapeutic touch; UC: usual care; B: blind; RCT: randomized controlled trial; TTH: tension-type headache.