Table 5: Hypothesis 5: Virtuous life and Positive affect is associated with better health outcomes.

StudySampleCohort followupPredictorOutcomeResultsNewcastle-Otawa gradeJadad score

Wattanakit et al. [95]12,965 middle-aged adults9.7 yearsAnger pronenessPeripheral arterial disease (PAD)Positive association between anger proneness and incident PAD8

Williams et al. [79]12 986 adults53 monthstrait angerCoronary heart disease (CHD)High trait anger, compared with their low anger counterparts, were at increased risk of CHD8

Xu and Roberts [83]6856 adults28 yearsPositive FeelingsMortalitySubjective well-being, positive feelings, life satisfaction significantly predicted lowered risks of all-cause and natural-cause mortality8

Danner et al. [86]180 Catholic nuns53 to 73 yearsPositive emotional content in early-life autobiographiesMortalityPositive emotional content in early-life autobiographies was strongly associated with longevity 6 decades later7

Davidson et al. [87]1739 adults10 yearspositive affectCardiovascular eventsIncreased positive affect was protective against 10-year incident CHD8

Versteeg et al. [93]562 PCI patients1 yearnegative and positive affectHealth status after PCIBaseline negative and positive affect contributes independently to patient-reported health status 12 months post-PCI7

Park-Lee et al. [89]337 caregiver and 617 noncaregiver2 yearsHigh and low positive affectFrailtyFrailty risk was lower in respondents with high positive affect than in those with low positive affect in the total sample7

Moskowitz et al. [84]715 diabetes patients and 2673 controlsPositive affectMortalityPositive affect was significantly associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality in people with diabetes, but not in control group7

Denollet et al. [88]874 PCI patients2 yearsPositive affectDeath or myocardial infarction post-PCIReduced positive affect independently predicted death/MI following stent implantation8

Fredman et al. [92]432 elderly hospitalized for hip fracture2 yearsHigh and low positive affectPerformance-based functioning after hip fractureHigh positive affect seems to have a beneficial influence on performance-based functioning after hip fracture8

Ostir et al. [90]1558 initially nonfrail older7 yearsPositive affectOnset of frailtypositive affect is protective against the functional and physical decline associated with frailty8

Fisher et al. [91]1084 noninstitutionalized elderly with arthritis2 yearspositive and negative affectFunctional abilityHigh positive affect was associated with lower incidence of ADL disability in older Mexican Americans with self-reported physician-diagnosed arthritis7

Moskowitz [85]407 men who were HIV+2 yearsPositive affectAIDS mortalityPositive affect was significantly associated with lower risk of AIDS mortality7

Skodol et al. [94]520 patients with personality disorders4 yearsPositive childhood experiencesRemission from personality disordersPositive childhood experiences were significantly associated with remission from avoidant and schizotypal personality disorders7

Yi et al. [96]111 patients with diabetes1 yearResilienceHbA(1c) and self-care behavioursThose with low or moderate resilience levels showed a strong association between rising distress and worsening HbA (1c) across time7

Walter-Ginzburg et al. [97]960 Israeli Jews aged 75–94± 3 yearsResilienceMortalityResilience predicted less mortality8

Poulin and Cohen Silver [104]2138 adults2 yearsBenevolence (Goodness of the World)Well-beingBenevolence beliefs were positively associated with well-being and that these associations were stronger with increasing age7

Buchanan and Bardi [100]86 participants10 daysKind actsSatisfaction with lifeKind acts, performed daily over as little as 10 days, increased life satisfaction7

Otake et al. [101]119 participants1 weekCounting KindnessHappinessPeople counting kindnesses increased people's subjective happiness7

Carson et al. [103]43 patients with chronic low back pain8 weeksLoving-kindness meditationPain, anger and psychological distressLoving-kindness program reduced pain, anger, and psychological distress in patients with persistent low back pain4

Hutcherson et al. [102]93 participants15 minutesLoving-kindness meditationSocial connectednessLoving-kindness meditation increased feelings of social connection and positivity toward novel individuals4

PCI: percutaneous coronary intervention.