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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2011, Article ID 895471, 7 pages
Research Article

Effects of Vitamin D Plus Calcium Supplements on Pharmacokinetics of Isoflavones in Thai Postmenopausal Women

1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
2Center of Thai Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand

Received 23 September 2010; Accepted 14 February 2011

Copyright © 2011 Supanimit Teekachunhatean et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The objective of this study was to determine the effects of vitamin D3 plus calcium supplements (D3-calcium) on pharmacokinetics of isoflavones in Thai postmenopausal women. This study was an open-labeled, randomized three-phase crossover study. Twelve healthy subjects were randomized to receive one of the following regimens: (a) a single dose of isoflavones, (b) a single dose of isoflavones, and D3-calcium, or (c) continuous D3-calcium for 7 days followed by a single dose of isoflavones on the 8th day. After a washout period, subjects were switched to receive the 2 remaining regimens according to their randomized sequences. Blood samples were collected before dose and at specific time points until 32 hours after isoflavone administration. Plasma was treated with β-glucuronidase/sulfatase to hydrolyze glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of daidzein and genistein. Plasma concentrations of daidzein and genistein were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The estimated pharmacokinetic parameters of isoflavones were time to maximal plasma concentration (Tmax), maximal plasma concentration (Cmax), half-life (t1/2) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). Tmax of daidzein and genistein after regimen B was significantly longer than that of regimen A. Other pharmacokinetic parameters of daidzein and genistein obtained following the three regimens were not significantly different.