Figure 1: Schematic representation of the regulation of the HPA axis under chronic stress. CRH and arginine vasopressin (AVP) synthesized by the paraventricular nucleus and released to the hypophyseal portal system stimulate adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) secretion by the anterior pituitary. ACTH triggers glucocorticoids release from the adrenal cortex. In an acute stress response, glucocorticoids regulate CRH and ACTH release in a negative feedback loop. However, in chronic stress, sustained glucocorticoids synthesis becomes detrimental to metabolic, endocrine, and immunologic processes leading to pathological states. MBM plays a role in maintaining stress hormone levels within their normal range. MBM may also affect the release of CRH and ACTH by helping to quiet the mind. Solid arrows: positive regulation, dotted lines: negative feedback, and dotted arrows: normalizing effects.