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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2011, Article ID 984027, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nep020
Original Article

Inhibition of Anchorage-Independent Proliferation and G0/G1 Cell-Cycle Regulation in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells by 4,7-Dimethoxy-5-Methyl-l,3-Benzodioxole Isolated from the Fruiting Body of Antrodia camphorate

1Department of Chemistry, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan
2Graduate Institute of Biomedical Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
3Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, National Cheng Kung University Medical College, Tainan, Taiwan
4Graduate Institute of Neuroscience, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
5Department of Applied Chemistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan

Received 15 December 2008; Accepted 16 February 2009

Copyright © 2011 Hsiu-Man Lien et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In this study, 4,7-dimethoxy-5-methyl-l,3-benzodioxole (SY-1) was isolated from three different sources of dried fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorate (AC). AC is a medicinal mushroom that grows on the inner heartwood wall of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hay (Lauraceae), an endemic species that is used in Chinese medicine for its anti-tumor and immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we demonstrated that SY-1 profoundly decreased the proliferation of human colon cancer cells (COLO 205) through G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest (50–150 μM) and induction of apoptosis (>150 μM). Cell-cycle arrest induced by SY-1 was associated with a significant increase in levels of p53, p21/Cip1 and p27/Kip1, and a decrease in cyclins D1, D3 and A. In contrast, SY-1 treatment did not induce significant changes in G0/G1 phase cell-cycle regulatory proteins in normal human colonic epithelial cells (FHC). The cells were cultured in soft agar to evaluate anchorage-independent colony formation, and we found that the number of transformed colonies was significantly reduced in the SY-1-treated COLO 205 cells. These findings demonstrate for the first time that SY-1 inhibits human colon cancer cell proliferation through inhibition of cell growth and anchorage-independent colony formation in soft agar. However, the detailed mechanisms of these processes remain unclear and will require further investigation.