Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 984080, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/984080
Research Article

Identification and Characterization of Cell Wall Proteins of a Toxic Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella Using 2-D DIGE and MALDI TOF-TOF Mass Spectrometry

State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Environmental Science Research Centre, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China

Received 20 January 2011; Accepted 30 June 2011

Copyright © 2011 Da-Zhi Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. F. J. R. Taylor, The Biology of Dinoflagellates, Black Well Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK, 1987.
  2. M. Kodama, “Ecobiology, classification, and origin,” in Seafood and Freshwater Toxins: Pharmacology, Physiology and Detection, L. M. Botana, Ed., pp. 125–151, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  3. G. M. Hallegraeff, “Harmful algal blooms: a global overview,” in Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, G. M. Hallegraeff, D. M. Anderson, and A. D. Cembella, Eds., pp. 25–49, Imprimerie Landais, Paris, France, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  4. D. M. Anderson, A. D. Cembella, and G. M. Hallegraeff, Physiological Ecology of Harmful Blooms, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, Germany, 1998.
  5. A. R. Loeblich, “The amphiesma or dinoflagellate cell covering,” in Proceedings of the North American Paleont. Convention, Chicago, pp. 867–929, Allen Press, Lawrence, Kan, USA, 1969.
  6. A. R. Loeblich and L. A. Loeblich, “Dinoflagellates: structure of the amphiesma and re-analysis of thecal plate patterns,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 177–179, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. J. Scanlan, N. H. Mann, and N. G. Carr, “The response of the picoplanktonic marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus species WH7803 to phosphate starvation involves a protein homologous to the periplasmic phosphate-binding protein of Escherichia coli,” Molecular Microbiology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 181–191, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. Song and B. B. Ward, “Molecular cloning and characterization of high-affinity nitrate transporters in marine phytoplankton,” Journal of Phycology, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 542–552, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. Tamai, A. Toh-e, and Y. Oshima, “Regulation of inorganic phosphate transport systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 164, no. 2, pp. 964–968, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. H. M. ElBerry, M. L. Majumdar, T. S. Cunningham, R. A. Sumrada, and T. G. Cooper, “Regulation of the urea active transporter gene (DUR3) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 175, no. 15, pp. 4688–4698, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. T. Maldonado and N. M. Price, “Reduction and transport of organically bound iron by Thalassiosira oceanica (Bacillariophyceae),” Journal of Phycology, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 298–309, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. C. Chung, S. P. Hwang, and J. Chang, “Identification of a high-affinity phosphate transporter gene in a Prasinophyte alga, Tetraselmis chui, and its expression under nutrient limitation,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 754–759, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Hildebrand, “Cloning and functional characterization of ammonium transporters from the marine diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis (Bacillariophyceae),” Journal of Phycology, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 105–113, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. E. Allen, “Beyond sequence homology: redundant ammonium transporters in a marine diatom are not functionally equivalent,” Journal of Phycology, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 4–6, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. K. Davis, M. Hildebrand, and B. Palenik, “A stress-induced protein associated with the girdle band region of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana (Bacillariophyta),” Journal of Phycology, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 577–589, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. M. West, P. Zhang, A. C. McGlynn, and L. Kaplan, “Outside-in signaling of cellulose synthesis by a spore coat protein in Dictyostelium,” Eukaryotic Cell, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 281–292, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. M. Landry, T. Gaasterland, and B. P. Palenik, “Molecular characterization of a phosphate-regulated cell-surface protein from the coccolithophorid, Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae),” Journal of Phycology, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 814–821, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. Palenik and F. M. M. Morel, “Amino acid utilization by marine phytoplankton: a novel mechanism,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 260–269, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. Palenik and F. M. M. Morel, “Comparison of cell-surface L-amino acid oxidases from several marine phytoplankton,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 29, pp. 195–201, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  20. B. Palenik and F. M. M. Morel, “Amine oxidases of marine phytoplankton,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2440–2443, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Strojsova, J. Vrba, J. Nedoma, and K. Simek, “Extracellular phosphatase activity of freshwater phytoplankton exposed to different in situ phosphorus concentrations,” Marine and Freshwater Research, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 417–424, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. S. T. Dyhrman and B. Palenik, “Characterization of ectoenzyme activity and phosphate-regulated proteins in the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi,” Journal of Plankton Research, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1215–1225, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. K. Middlemiss, A. M. Anderson, C. W. Stratilo, and H. G. Weger, “Oxygen consumption associated with ferric reductase activity and iron uptake by iron-limited cells of Chlorella kessleri (Chlorophyceae),” Journal of Phycology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 393–399, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. Xu, T. M. Wahlund, L. Feng, Y. Shaked, and F. M. M. Morel, “A novel alkaline phosphatase in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) and its regulation by phosphorus,” Journal of Phycology, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 835–844, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. E. Gau, A. Heindl, A. Nodop, U. Kahmann, and E. K. Pistorius, “L-amino acid oxidases with specificity for basic L-amino acids in cyanobacteria,” Journal of Biosciences, vol. 62, no. 3-4, pp. 273–284, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. Palenik and J. A. Koke, “Characterization of a nitrogen-regulated protein identified by cell surface biotinylation of a marine phytoplankton,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 3311–3315, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. T. Dyhrman and B. Palenik, “The identification and purification of a cell-surface alkaline phosphatase from the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum (Dinophyceae),” Journal of Phycology, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 602–612, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. K. Stoecker and D. E. Gustafson, “Cell-surface proteolytic activity of photosynthetic dinoflagellates,” Aquatic Microbial Ecology, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 175–183, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. T. Dyhrman, “Ectoenzymes in Prorocentrum minimum,” Harmful Algae, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 619–627, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. Bertomeu, J. W. Hastings, and D. Morse, “Vectorial labeling of dinoflagellate cell surface proteins,” Journal of Phycology, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1254–1260, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. Robertson, G. P. Mitchell, J. S. Gilroy, C. Gerrish, G. P. Bolwell, and A. R. Slabas, “Differential extraction and protein sequencing reveals major differences in patterns of primary cell wall proteins from plants,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 272, no. 25, pp. 15841–15848, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. B. Wang, Q. Hu, M. Sommerfeld, and F. Chen, “Cell wall proteomics of the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae),” Proteomics, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 692–708, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  33. F. Huang, E. Hedman, C. Funk, T. Kieselbach, W. P. Schroder, and B. Norling, “Isolation of outer membrane of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and its proteomic characterization,” Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 586–595, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. L. Chan, S. C. L. Lo, and I. J. Hodgkiss, “Proteomic study of a model causative agent of harmful red tide, Prorocentrum triestinum I: optimization of sample preparation methodologies for analyzing with two-dimensional electrophoresis,” Proteomics, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 1169–1186, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. L. Chan, I. J. Hodgkiss, and S. C. L. Lo, “Proteomic study of a model causative agent of harmful algal blooms, Prorocentrum triestinum II: the use of differentially expressed protein profiles under different growth phases and growth conditions for bloom prediction,” Proteomics, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 3214–3226, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. L. Chan, I. J. Hodgkiss, S. H. Lu, and S. C. L. Lo, “Use of 2-DE electrophoresis proteome reference maps of dinoflagellates for species recognition of causative agents of harmful algal blooms,” Proteomics, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 180–192, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. L. Chan, I. J. Hodgkiss, P. K. Lam et al., “Use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to differentiate morphospecies of Alexandrium minutum, a paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin-producing dinoflagellate of harmful algal blooms,” Proteomics, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1580–1593, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. L. L. Chan, W. H. Sit, P. K. S. Lam et al., “Identification and characterization of a "biomarker of toxicity" from the proteome of the paralytic shellfish toxin-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae),” Proteomics, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 654–666, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. N. B. Larbi and C. Jefferies, “2D-DIGE: comparative proteomics of cellular signalling pathways,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 517, pp. 105–132, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. H. L. Huang, T. Stasyk, S. Morandell et al., “Biomarker discovery in breast cancer serum using 2-D differential gel electrophoresis/MALDI-TOF/TOF and data validation by routine clinical assays,” Electrophoresis, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1641–1650, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. Y. Fan, T. B. Murphy, J. C. Byrne, L. Brennan, J. M. Fitzpatrick, and R. W. G. Watson, “Applying random forests to identify biomarker panels in serum 2D-DIGE data for the detection and staging of prostate cancer,” Journal of Proteome Research, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1361–1373, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. T. Kondo, “Tissue proteomics for cancer biomarker development—laser microdissection and 2D-DIGE,” Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Reports, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 626–634, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. Kramer and D. Cohen, “Functional genomics to new drug targets,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 3, no. 11, pp. 965–972, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. D. Z. Wang, S. G. Zhang, H. F. Gu, L. L. Chan, and H. S. Hong, “Paralytic shellfish toxin profiles and toxin variability of the genus Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) isolated from the Southeast China Sea,” Toxicon, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 138–151, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. D. Keller, R. C. Selvin, W. Claus, and R. R. L. Guillard, “Media for the culture of oceanic ultraphytoplankton,” Journal of Phycology, vol. 23, pp. 633–638, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  46. D. Z. Wang, C. Li, Z. X. Xie, P. D. Dong, L. Lin, and H. S. Hong, “Homology-driven proteomics of dinoflagellates with unsequenced genome by MALDI-TOF/TOF and automated de novo sequencing,” eCAM. In press.
  47. D. J. Cosgrove, “Enzymes and other agents that enhance cell wall extensibility,” Annual Review of Plant Biology, vol. 50, pp. 391–417, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. C. Fry, “Polysaccharide-modifying enzymes in the plant cell wall,” Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, vol. 46, pp. 497–520, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. J. Gumucio and J. D. Ostrow, “Brown pigment gallstones: the role of bacterial hydrolases and another missed opportunity,” Hepatology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 607–609, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Z. Minic, “Physiological roles of plant glycoside hydrolases,” Planta, vol. 227, no. 4, pp. 723–740, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. H. Kim, J. R. Shinkle, and S. J. Roux, “Phytochrome induces changes in the immunodetectable level of a wall peroxidase that precede growth changes in maize seedlings,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 86, no. 24, pp. 9866–9870, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. W. Z. Liu, Y. Hu, R. J. Zhang et al., “Transfer of a eubacteria-type cell division site-determining factor CrMinD gene to the nucleus from the chloroplast genome in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii,” Chinese Science Bulletin, vol. 52, no. 18, pp. 2514–2521, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. B. D. Kohorn, “Plasma membrane-cell wall contacts,” Plant Physiology, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 31–38, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. O. C. Silva, “CG-1, a parsley light-induced DNA-binding protein,” Plant Molecular Biology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 921–924, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. Grimwood, L. Olinger, and R. S. Stephens, “Expression of Chlamydia pneumoniae polymorphic membrane protein family genes,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 2383–2389, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. F. Volpe, M. Dyer, J. G. Scaife, G. Darby, D. K. Stammers, and C. J. Delves, “The multifunctional folic acid synthesis fas gene of Pneumocystis carinii appears to encode dihydropteroate synthase and hydroxymethyldihydropterin pyrophosphokinase,” Gene, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 213–218, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. L. Yergey, J. R. Coorssen, P. S. Backlund et al., “De novo sequencing of peptides using MALDI/TOF-TOF,” Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 784–791, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. N. S. Tannu and S. E. Hemby, “De novo protein sequence analysis of Macaca mulatta,” BMC Genomics, vol. 8, article 270, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. B. Samyn, K. Sergeant, S. Memmi, G. Debyser, B. Devreese, and J. Van Beeumen, “MALDI-TOF/TOF de novo sequence analysis of 2-D PAGE-separated proteins from Halorhodospira halophila, a bacterium with unsequenced genome,” Electrophoresis, vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 2702–2711, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus