Figure 7: The effect of Gelam honey on the gene expression of (a) iNOS, (b) COX-2, (c) TNF-α, and (d) IL-6 in paw tissue. Rats were pretreated orally with Gelam honey (1 or 2 g/kg of body weight) for 1 or 7 days before inflammation, as induced by carrageenan injection. D.W.: distilled water, Carr: carrageenan, IND: Indomethacin. Data are presented as the mean ± S.E.M. ( ). compared to the inflammation group (D.W. + Carr.). compared to the Indomethacin group (10 mg IND/kg of body weight + Carr.). compared between different honey doses at the same time point, 1 day or 7 days. the same honey dose, compared between different time points, 1 day and 7 days.