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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 197309, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/197309
Research Article

The Antitumor Activity of Antrodia camphorata in Melanoma Cells: Modulation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathways

1Department of Cosmeceutics, College of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
2Institute of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
3Department of Medical Research, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan 710, Taiwan
4Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
5Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan

Received 6 July 2012; Accepted 14 August 2012

Academic Editor: Olumayokun A. Olajide

Copyright © 2012 You-Cheng Hseu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Antrodia camphorata (AC) is well known in Taiwan as a traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a fermented culture broth of AC could inhibit melanoma proliferation and progression via suppression of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In this study, we observed that AC treatment resulted in decreased cell viability and disturbed Wnt/β-catenin cascade in B16F10 and/or B16F1 melanoma cells. This result was accompanied by a decrease in the expression of Wnt/β-catenin transcriptional targets, including c-Myc and survivin. Furthermore, treatment of melanoma cells with AC resulted in a significant increase in apoptosis, which was associated with DNA fragmentation, cytochrome c release, caspase-9 and -3 activation, PARP degradation, Bcl-2/Bax dysregulation, and p53 expression. We also observed that AC caused G1 phase arrest mediated by a downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 and increased p21 and p27 expression. In addition, we demonstrated that non- and subcytotoxic concentrations of AC markedly inhibited migration and invasion of highly metastatic B16F10 cells. The antimetastatic effect of AC was further confirmed by reductions in the levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF expression. These results suggest that Antrodia camphorata may exert antitumor activity by downregulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathways.