Table 2: (a) Medicinal uses of M. malabathricum according to its part. (b) Medicinal uses of M. malabathricum according to several communities/tribes reported around the world.
(a)

Plant partsMedicinal usesReference

LeavesLeaves are chewed up, pounded, and applied as paste on cuts or wounds or finely chopped up and squeezed to apply the juice onto the wound to stop bleedingLatiff and Zakri [29]; Jaganath and Ng [25]; Zakaria et al. [30]
Leaves are used to prevent scarring from smallpox, to treat dysentery, diarrhoea, piles, and as a tonicSharma et al. [11]
Young leaves are eaten to treat diarrheaJaganath and Ng [25]
Young premature leaves are consumed raw to cure dysenterySajem and Gosai [31]
Leaves are also useful to treat ulcers, gastric ulcers, scar, pimple, and black spot at skinLohézic-Le Dévéhat et al. [32]
Combination of leaves and roots in powder form is applied to wounds and pox scars to aid the healing process or used to relieve the discomfort of hemorrhoidsBurkill [24]; Fazlin et al. [7]
Powdered leaves alone is used as astringent for dysenteryUmali-Stuart and Stiuart-Santiago [9]
Juice of leaves and roots is used as a digestive aidUmali-Stuart and Stiuart-Santiago [9]
Combination of leaves and flowers is used in the treatment of cholera, diarrhoea, prolonged fever, dysentery, leucorrhoea, wounds, and skin diseases and for the preparation of garglesPerry [36]; Burkill [24]; Koay [23]; Sharma et al. [11]
Combination of leaves and flowers is used as astringent in leukorrhea and chronic diarrheaUmali-Stuart and Stiuart-Santiago [9]

ShootsShoots are ingested to treat puerperal infections, high blood pressure, and diabetesBurkill [24]; Koay [23]
Juice of shoots is used as a mouthwash to relieve a toothache or to treat leukorrhea

RootsRoots are used as mouthwash to relieve a toothache and to treat epilepsyBurkill [24]; Jaganath and Ng [25]; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat et al. [32]
Roots are given to postpartum women to aid healing and womb strengtheningFazlin et al. [7]; Jaganath and Ng [25]; Zakaria et al. [30]
Roots are used to alleviate rheumatism, arthritis, and tenderness in the legsBurkill [24]; Koay [23]
Decoction of roots is used to treat diarrheaLin [33]
Juice of roots is applied to lessen the soreness due to thrush in childrenBurkill [24]; Koay [23]
Combination of roots and leaves in a form of decoction or roots alone are used to tone up the uterus after childbirth in order to strengthen the womb and accelerate wound healing, reduce excessive menstrual bleeding and cramps, relieve postmenstrual syndrome, stomach ache, and white discharge, and enhance fertilityKoay [23]

Barks Barks are useful for the treatment of various skin diseasesJain and De Filipps [34]

FlowersFlowers are used to treat cancerMohandoss and Ravindran [35]
Flowers are used as a nervous sedative and for hemorrhoidal bleedingUmali-Stuart and Stiuart-Santiago [9]
Combination of flowers, seeds, and leaves is used to reduce white vaginal discharge and indigestionJaganath and Ng [25]

(b)

Communities/tribesCountryMedicinal usesReference

Gayo and AlasAceh, Sumatra, IndonesiaThe cold infusion of M. malabthricum flowers is an optional ingredient added to an oral remedy for anaemia associated with gastrointestinal bleeding and epigastric painElliott and Brimacombe [37]

Talang MamakRiau, Sumatra, IndonesiaThe ground leaves are applied as a compress to cuts and woundsGrosvenor et al. [8]

MalayMachang, Kelantan, MalaysiaThe fruit juice is applied on dry lipsOng and Nordiana [38]
Gemenceh, Negri Sembilan, MalaysiaThe pounded leaves are applied onto wounds to accelerate healingOng and Nordiana [39]

Jah HutJerantut, Pahang, MalaysiaThe roots are applied as decoction to treat diarrheaLin [33]

Lakher and PawiMizoram, IndiaThe decoction of the leaves or its juice is taken orally to treat diarrhoea and dysenterySharma et al. [11]

MeiteiManipur and Mayurbhanj, Orissa, IndiaThe bark and leaves are used for treating skin troubles, leukorrhea, diarrhea, and dysentryThatoi et al. [14]

DidayiMalkangiri, Orissa, IndiaThe leaves are applied externally as paste to treat cuts and woundsPattanaik et al. [13]

SundaneseBogor, West Java, IndonesiaThe leaves is used as topical application or oral ingestion to treat toothache and for postpartum remedyRoosita et al. [40]

MarmasBandarban, BangladeshThe root juice is used to treat jaundiceRahmatullah et al. [18]

GaroNetrakona, BangaldeshThe leaf juice is used as a diuretic and to treat various urinary problemsRahmatullah et al. [19]

MurongRangamati, BangladeshThe root juice or water extract of boiled roots are used orally to treat leukorrheaRahmatullah et al. [20]

NagaManipur, IndiaThe fresh and dry leaves are used to treat cuts and wounds, stomach disorder, and feverRingmichon et al. [15]
TahitiThe plant is used to treat diarrhea and dysentery with its bark decoction used as gargleUmali-Stuart and Stiuart-Santiago [9]