Inulae Flos and Its Compounds Inhibit TNF-α- and IFN-γ-Induced Chemokine Production in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes
Effects of Inulae Flos extract on TARC/CCL17 production in HaCaT cells. Cells were treated with various Inulae Flos extracts (70% methanol, 6.25–25 μg/mL; 70% ethanol, 6.25–25 μg/mL; 100% methanol, 3.13–12.5 μg/mL; 100% ethanol, 1.56–6.25 μg/mL; water, 25–100 μg/mL) and then costimulated with TNF-α and IFN-γ (each 10 ng/mL) for 24 h. As the positive control, cells were treated with silymarin (6.25–25 μg/mL). The levels of TARC released into the culture medium were assessed using a commercially available ELISA kit. Each bar represents the mean of three independent experiments. ## versus vehicle-treated control group; * and ** versus TNF-α/IFN-γ-treated cells.
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