Inulae Flos and Its Compounds Inhibit TNF-α- and IFN-γ-Induced Chemokine Production in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes
Effects of single compounds from Inulae Flos on chemokine production in HaCaT cells. Cells were treated with single compounds (1, 50–200 μM chlorogenic acid; 2, 50–200 μM caffeic acid; 3, 50–200 μM 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid; 4, 50–200 μM rutin; 5, 50–200 μM kaempferol-3-O-glucoside; 6, 6.25–25 μM quercetin; 7, 3.13–12.5 μM luteolin; 8, 1.56–6.25 μM 6-methoxy-luteolin) and then costimulated with TNF-α and IFN-γ (each 10 ng/mL) for 24 h. As the positive control, cells were treated with silymarin (6.25–25 μg/mL). The levels of TARC (a), MDC (b), and RANTES (c) released into the culture medium were assessed using commercially available ELISA kits. Each bar represents the mean of three independent experiments. ## versus vehicle-treated control group; * and ** versus TNF-α/IFN-γ-treated cells.
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