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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 284301, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/284301
Research Article

Clerodendrum inerme Leaf Extract Alleviates Animal Behaviors, Hyperlocomotion, and Prepulse Inhibition Disruptions, Mimicking Tourette Syndrome and Schizophrenia

1Graduate Institute of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Jen-Ai Road, Section 1, Taipei 100, Taiwan
2Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Jen-Ai Road, Section 1, Taipei 100, Taiwan
3Graduate Institute of Pharmacognosy, Taipei Medical University, No. 250, Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan
4Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Jen-Ai Road, Section 1, Taipei 100, Taiwan
5Department of Pediatrics, Taipei City Hospital, Zhongxiao Branch, No. 87, Tongde Road, Taipei 115, Taiwan
6Medical and Pharmaceutical Industry Technology and Development Center, 7F, No. 9, Wuquan Road, Wugu Dist., New Taipei 248, Taiwan
7Graduate Institute of Brain and Mind Sciences, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Jen-Ai Road, Section 1, Taipei 100, Taiwan

Received 23 February 2012; Accepted 1 June 2012

Academic Editor: Ching Liang Hsieh

Copyright © 2012 Hon-Lie Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Previously, we found a patient with intractable motor tic disorder, a spectrum of Tourette syndrome (TS), responsive to the ground leaf juice of Clerodendrum inerme (CI). Here, we examined the effect of the ethanol extract of CI leaves (CI extract) on animal behaviors mimicking TS, hyperlocomotion, and sensorimotor gating deficit. The latter is also observed in schizophrenic patients and can be reflected by a disruption of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle response (PPI) in animal models induced by methamphetamine and NMDA channel blockers (ketamine or MK-801), based on hyperdopaminergic and hypoglutamatergic hypotheses, respectively. CI extract (10–300 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently inhibited hyperlocomotion induced by methamphetamine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) and PPI disruptions induced by methamphetamine, ketamine (30 mg/kg, i.p.), and MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) but did not affect spontaneous locomotor activity, rotarod performance, and grip force. These results suggest that CI extract can relieve hyperlocomotion and improve sensorimotor gating deficit, supporting the therapeutic potential of CI for TS and schizophrenia.